Guidelines and recommendations for indoor use of fuel cells and hydrogen systems

Beatrice Fuster, Deborah Houssin-Agbomson, Simon Jallais, Elena Vyazmina, Guy Dang-Nhu, Gilles Bernard-Michel, Mike Kuznetsov, Vladimir Molkov, Boris Chernyavskiy, Volodymyr Shentsov, Dmitriy Makarov, Randy Dey, Philip Hooker, Daniele Baraldi, Evelyn Weidner, Daniele Melideo, Valerio Palmisano, Alexandros Venetsanos, Jan Der Kinderen

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25 Citations (Scopus)
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Hydrogen energy applications often require that systems are used indoors (e.g., industrial trucks for materials handling in a warehouse facility, fuel cells located in a room, or hydrogen stored and distributed from a gas cabinet). It may also be necessary or desirable to locate some hydrogen system components/equipment inside indoor or outdoor enclosures for security or safety reasons, to isolate them from the end-user and the public, or from weather conditions. Using of hydrogen in confined environments requires detailed assessments of hazards and associated risks, including potential risk prevention and mitigation features. The release of hydrogen can potentially lead to the accumulation of hydrogen and the formation of a flammable hydrogen-air mixture, or can result in jet-fires. Within Hyindoor European Project, carried out for the EU Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking safety design guidelines and engineering tools have been developed to prevent andmitigate hazardous consequences of hydrogen release in confined environments. Three main areas are considered: Hydrogen release conditions and accumulation, vented deflagrations, jet fires and including under-ventilated flame regimes (e.g., extinguishment or oscillating flames and steady burns). Potential RCS recommendations are also identified.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7600-7607
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number11
Early online date21 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 16 Mar 2017


  • Hydrogen
  • Indoor use
  • Risk mitigation
  • RCS


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