Golf Coaches' Perceptions of Key Technical Swing Parameters Compared to Biomechanical Literature

Aimee Smith, Jonathan Roberts, Eric S Wallace, Pui Wah Kong, Steph Forrester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Assessing a coach’s technical knowledge of a sporting technique can reveal measureable biomechanical parameters associated with a successful performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key technical parameters that golf coaches associate with a successful golf swing. Sixteen high-level golf coaches were observed coaching a highly skilled golfer after which they participated in a semistructured interview regarding their technical analysis of the golf swing. The data were inductively analysed and five intrinsically linked key technical parameters were identified: ‘Posture’, Body Rotation’, ‘Arm and Wrist Action’, ‘Sequential Movement and Body Segments’ and ‘Club Motion’. The parameters Posture and Body Rotation were further sub-categorised and compared to the existing biomechanical literature whereby gaps in knowledge were identified. The results of this study can be used to guide future golf biomechanics research and coaching technologies.
LanguageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

posture
interviews
methodology
biomechanics

Keywords

  • Body Rotation
  • Coaching-Biomechanics Interface
  • Expertise
  • Golf Swing Coach
  • Posture
  • Technical Knowledge

Cite this

@article{d86fc1787031470ba6ac8de4e8bd6ca3,
title = "Golf Coaches' Perceptions of Key Technical Swing Parameters Compared to Biomechanical Literature",
abstract = "Assessing a coach’s technical knowledge of a sporting technique can reveal measureable biomechanical parameters associated with a successful performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key technical parameters that golf coaches associate with a successful golf swing. Sixteen high-level golf coaches were observed coaching a highly skilled golfer after which they participated in a semistructured interview regarding their technical analysis of the golf swing. The data were inductively analysed and five intrinsically linked key technical parameters were identified: ‘Posture’, Body Rotation’, ‘Arm and Wrist Action’, ‘Sequential Movement and Body Segments’ and ‘Club Motion’. The parameters Posture and Body Rotation were further sub-categorised and compared to the existing biomechanical literature whereby gaps in knowledge were identified. The results of this study can be used to guide future golf biomechanics research and coaching technologies.",
keywords = "Body Rotation, Coaching-Biomechanics Interface, Expertise, Golf Swing Coach, Posture, Technical Knowledge",
author = "Aimee Smith and Jonathan Roberts and Wallace, {Eric S} and Kong, {Pui Wah} and Steph Forrester",
note = "Reference text: 1. Sherman, C.A., Sparrow, W.A., Jolley, D. and Eldering, J., Coaches’ Perceptions of Golf Swing Kinematics, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2001,31, 257–70. 2. Jones, R.L., Hughes, M. and Kingston, K., An Introduction to Sports Coaching: From Science and Theory to Practice, Routledge, Abingdon, 2008 3. Thompson, A., Bezodis, I.N. and Jones, R.L., An In-Depth Assessment of Expert Sprint Coaches’ Technical Knowledge, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2009, 27(8), 855–61. 4. Irwin, G., Hanton, S. and Kerwin, D., The Conceptual Process of Skill Progression Development in Artistic Gymnastics, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23(10),1089–99. 5. Greenwood, D., Davids, K. and Renshaw, I., How Elite Coaches’ Experiential Knowledge Might Enhance Empirical Research on Sport Performance, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2012, 7(2), 411–22. 6. Schempp, P.G., Webster, C., Mccullick, B., Busch, C. and Sannen Mason, I., How the Best Get Better: An Analysis of the Self-Monitoring Strategies Used by Expert Golf Instructors, Sport, Education and Society, 2007,12(2),175–92. 7. Adlington, G., Proper Swing Technique and Biomechanics of Golf, Clinics In Sports Medicine, 1996,15(1),9–26. 8. Hume, P.A., Keogh, J. and Reid, D., The Role of Biomechanics in Maximising Distance and Accuracy of Golf Shots, Sports Medicine, 2005, 35(5), 429–49. 9. Lees, A., Biomechanical Assessment of Individual Sports for Improved Performance, Sports Medicine, 1999, 28(5), 299-305. 10. C{\^o}t{\'e}, J., Salmela, J. and Russell, S., The Knowledge of High-Performance Gymnastic Coaches: Methodological Framework, Avante, 1995, 65–75. 11. Jones, R., Bezodis, I. and Thompson, A., Coaching Sprinting: Expert Coaches’ Perception of Race Phases and Technical Constructs, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2009, 4(3), 385–96. 12. Patton, M., Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd edn., Sage Publications, London, 2002. 13. Meyer, B.B. and Wenger, M.S., Athletes and Adventure Education: An Empirical Investigation., International Journal of Sport Psychology, 1998, 29(3), 243–66. 14. Kvale, S., Doing Interviews, Sage Publications, London, 2007. 15. Roberts, J., Jones, R., Harwood, C. and Mitchell, S., Human Perceptions of Sports Equipment Under Playing Conditions Human Perceptions of Sports Equipment Under Playing Conditions, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2001, 485–97. 16. Walker, D. and Myrick, F., Grounded Theory: An Exploration of Process and Procedure, Qualitative Health Research, 2006,16(4), 547–59. 17. Corbin, J. and Strauss, A., Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory, Sage Publications, London, 2008. 18. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., Fleisig, GS. and Andrews, J.R., Kinematic Analysis of Swing in Pro and Amateur Golfers, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008, 29(6), 487–93. 19. Burden, A.M., Grimshaw, P.N. and Wallace, E.S., Hip and Shoulder Rotations During the Golf Swing of Sub- 10 Handicap Players, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1998,16(2),165–76. 20. Coleman, S. and Rankin, A.A., Three-Dimensional Examination of the Planar Nature of the Golf Swing., Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23(3), 227–34. 21. Wheat, J.S., Vernon, T. and Milner, C.E., The Measurement of Upper Body Alignment During the Golf Drive, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 749–55. 22. Neal, R., Introducing the Rate of Recoil of A Golf Swing [Internet], Golf Biodynamics. 2008. Available from: http://www.totalgolfanalysis.co.uk/download/article-rateofrecoil.pdf 23. Coffey, N., Harrison, A.J., Donoghue, O.A. and Hayes, K., Common Functional Principal Components Analysis: A New Approach to Analyzing Human Movement Data., Human Movement Science, 2011, 30(6),1144–66. 24. Don{\`a}, G., Preatoni, E., Cobelli, C., Rodano, R. and Harrison, A.J., Application of Functional Principal Component Analysis in Race Walking: An Emerging Methodology, Sports Biomechanics, 2009, 8(4), 284–301. 25. Lynn, S.K., Noffal, G.J., Wu, W.F.W. and Vandervoort, A.A., Using Principal Components Analysis to Determine Differences in 3D Loading Patterns Between Beginner and Collegiate Level Golfers, International Journal of Golf Science, 2012, 25–41. 26. Winter, D., Human Balance and Posture Control During Standing and Walking, Gait & Posture, 1995,3(4),193–214. 27. Chu, Y., Sell, T. and Lephart, S., The Relationship Between Biomechanical Variables and Driving Performance During the Golf Swing, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2010, 28(11),1251–9. 28. McTeigue, M, Lamb, S.R., Mottram, R. and Pirozzolo, F., Spine and Hip Motion Analysis During the Golf Swing, Science and Golf II: Proceedings of The World Scientific Congress of Golf, 1994, 50-58. 29. Miura, K.N. and Naruo, T., Accelerating and Decelerating Phases of the Wrist Motion of the Golf Swing, in: Haake, S.J., ed. The Engineering of Sport: Design and Development, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1998, 455- 463. 30. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., Fleisig, G.S. and Andrews, J.R., Swing Kinematics For Male and Female Pro Golfers., International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008,29(12),965–70. 31. Lindsay, D.M. and Horton, J.F., Trunk Motion of Male Professional Golfers Using Two Different Golf Clubs, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2002,18, 366–73. 32. Perry, S.D., Radtke, A. and Goodwin, C.R., Influence of Footwear Midsole Material Hardness On Dynamic Balance Control During Unexpected Gait Termination, Gait & Posture, 2007, 25(1), 94–8. 33. Ball, K. and Best, R., Different Centre of Pressure Patterns Within the Golf Stroke I: Cluster Analysis, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 757–70. 34. Ball, K. and Best, R., Centre of Pressure Patterns in the Golf Swing: Individual-Based Analysis, Sports Biomechanics, 2012,11(2),175–89. 35. Ball, K. and Best, R., Different Centre of Pressure Patterns Within the Golf Stroke II: Group-Based Analysis, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 771–9. 36. Burden, A., Grimshaw, P. and Wallace, E., Hip and Shoulder Rotations During the Golf Swing of Sub-10 Handicap Players, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1998,16(2),165–76. 37. Edmondston, S., Aggerholm, M., Elfving, S., Flores, N., Ng, C. and Smith, R., Influence of Posture on the Range of Axial Rotation and coupled Lateral Flexion of the Thoracic Spine, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2007, 30(3), 193–9. 38. Egret, C., Nicolle, B., Dujardin, F., Weber, J. and Chollet, D., Kinematic Analysis of the Golf Swing in Men and Women Experienced Golfers, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2006, 27(6), 463–7. 39. Meister, D.W., Ladd, A.L., Butler, E.E., Zhao, B., Rogers, A.P. and Ray, C.J., Rotational Biomechanics of the Elite Golf Swing: Benchmarks For Amateurs, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2011, 27(3), 242–51. 40. Myers, J., Lephart, S., Tsai, Y-S., Sell, T., Smoliga, J. and Jolly, J., The Role of Upper Torso and Pelvis Rotation in Driving Performance During the Golf Swing., Journal of Sports Sciences, 2008, 26(2), 181–8. 41. Cheetham, P. and Martin, P., The Importance of Stretching the “ X-Factor ” in the Downswing of Golf: The “ X-Factor Stretch ,” Golf Magazine, 2001,1–11. 42. Brown, S., Nevill, A., Monk, S., Otto, S., Selbie, S. and Wallace, E., Determination of the Swing Technique Characteristics and Performance Outcome Relationship in Golf Driving For Low Handicap Female Golfers, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011, 29(14), 1483–91. 43. Bradshaw, E., Keogh, J., Hume, P., Maulder, P., Nortje, J. and Marnewick, M., The Effect of Biological Movement Variability On the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players, Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport, 2009, 80(2),185–96. 44. Horan, S., Evans, K. and Kavanagh, J., Movement Variability in the Golf Swing of Male and Female Skilled Golfers, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2011, 43(8), 1474–83. 45. Tucker, C., Is Movement Variability Relevant For the Elite Golfer? A Biomechanical and Modelling Perspective, PhD Thesis, University of Limerick, 2012. 46. Horan, S., Evans, K., Morris, N. and Kavanagh, J., Thorax and Pelvis Kinematics During the Downswing of Male and Female Skilled Golfers, Journal of Biomechanics, 2010,1–7. 47. Horan, S.A. and Kavanagh, J.J., The Control of Upper Body Segment Speed and Velocity During the Golf Swing, Sports Biomechanics, 2012,11(2),165–74. 48. Joyce, C., Burnett, A. and Ball, K., Methodological Considerations For the 3D Measurement of the X-Factor and Lower Trunk Movement in Golf., Sports Biomechanics, 2010, 9(3), 206–21. 49. Brown, S.J., Selbie, W.S. and Wallace, E.S., The X-Factor: An Evaluation of Common Methods Used to Analyse Major Inter-Segment Kinematics During the Golf Swing, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2013, 31(11), 1156–63. 50. Kwon, Y-H., Han, K.H., Como, C., Lee, S. and Singhal, K., Validity of the X-Factor Computation Methods and Relationship Between the X-Factor Parameters and Clubhead Velocity in Skilled Golfers, Sports Biomechanics, 2013,1–16.",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1260/1747-9541.10.4.739",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching",
issn = "1747-9541",
number = "4",

}

Golf Coaches' Perceptions of Key Technical Swing Parameters Compared to Biomechanical Literature. / Smith, Aimee; Roberts, Jonathan; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui Wah; Forrester, Steph.

In: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Golf Coaches' Perceptions of Key Technical Swing Parameters Compared to Biomechanical Literature

AU - Smith, Aimee

AU - Roberts, Jonathan

AU - Wallace, Eric S

AU - Kong, Pui Wah

AU - Forrester, Steph

N1 - Reference text: 1. Sherman, C.A., Sparrow, W.A., Jolley, D. and Eldering, J., Coaches’ Perceptions of Golf Swing Kinematics, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2001,31, 257–70. 2. Jones, R.L., Hughes, M. and Kingston, K., An Introduction to Sports Coaching: From Science and Theory to Practice, Routledge, Abingdon, 2008 3. Thompson, A., Bezodis, I.N. and Jones, R.L., An In-Depth Assessment of Expert Sprint Coaches’ Technical Knowledge, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2009, 27(8), 855–61. 4. Irwin, G., Hanton, S. and Kerwin, D., The Conceptual Process of Skill Progression Development in Artistic Gymnastics, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23(10),1089–99. 5. Greenwood, D., Davids, K. and Renshaw, I., How Elite Coaches’ Experiential Knowledge Might Enhance Empirical Research on Sport Performance, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2012, 7(2), 411–22. 6. Schempp, P.G., Webster, C., Mccullick, B., Busch, C. and Sannen Mason, I., How the Best Get Better: An Analysis of the Self-Monitoring Strategies Used by Expert Golf Instructors, Sport, Education and Society, 2007,12(2),175–92. 7. Adlington, G., Proper Swing Technique and Biomechanics of Golf, Clinics In Sports Medicine, 1996,15(1),9–26. 8. Hume, P.A., Keogh, J. and Reid, D., The Role of Biomechanics in Maximising Distance and Accuracy of Golf Shots, Sports Medicine, 2005, 35(5), 429–49. 9. Lees, A., Biomechanical Assessment of Individual Sports for Improved Performance, Sports Medicine, 1999, 28(5), 299-305. 10. Côté, J., Salmela, J. and Russell, S., The Knowledge of High-Performance Gymnastic Coaches: Methodological Framework, Avante, 1995, 65–75. 11. Jones, R., Bezodis, I. and Thompson, A., Coaching Sprinting: Expert Coaches’ Perception of Race Phases and Technical Constructs, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2009, 4(3), 385–96. 12. Patton, M., Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd edn., Sage Publications, London, 2002. 13. Meyer, B.B. and Wenger, M.S., Athletes and Adventure Education: An Empirical Investigation., International Journal of Sport Psychology, 1998, 29(3), 243–66. 14. Kvale, S., Doing Interviews, Sage Publications, London, 2007. 15. Roberts, J., Jones, R., Harwood, C. and Mitchell, S., Human Perceptions of Sports Equipment Under Playing Conditions Human Perceptions of Sports Equipment Under Playing Conditions, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2001, 485–97. 16. Walker, D. and Myrick, F., Grounded Theory: An Exploration of Process and Procedure, Qualitative Health Research, 2006,16(4), 547–59. 17. Corbin, J. and Strauss, A., Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory, Sage Publications, London, 2008. 18. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., Fleisig, GS. and Andrews, J.R., Kinematic Analysis of Swing in Pro and Amateur Golfers, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008, 29(6), 487–93. 19. Burden, A.M., Grimshaw, P.N. and Wallace, E.S., Hip and Shoulder Rotations During the Golf Swing of Sub- 10 Handicap Players, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1998,16(2),165–76. 20. Coleman, S. and Rankin, A.A., Three-Dimensional Examination of the Planar Nature of the Golf Swing., Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23(3), 227–34. 21. Wheat, J.S., Vernon, T. and Milner, C.E., The Measurement of Upper Body Alignment During the Golf Drive, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 749–55. 22. Neal, R., Introducing the Rate of Recoil of A Golf Swing [Internet], Golf Biodynamics. 2008. Available from: http://www.totalgolfanalysis.co.uk/download/article-rateofrecoil.pdf 23. Coffey, N., Harrison, A.J., Donoghue, O.A. and Hayes, K., Common Functional Principal Components Analysis: A New Approach to Analyzing Human Movement Data., Human Movement Science, 2011, 30(6),1144–66. 24. Donà, G., Preatoni, E., Cobelli, C., Rodano, R. and Harrison, A.J., Application of Functional Principal Component Analysis in Race Walking: An Emerging Methodology, Sports Biomechanics, 2009, 8(4), 284–301. 25. Lynn, S.K., Noffal, G.J., Wu, W.F.W. and Vandervoort, A.A., Using Principal Components Analysis to Determine Differences in 3D Loading Patterns Between Beginner and Collegiate Level Golfers, International Journal of Golf Science, 2012, 25–41. 26. Winter, D., Human Balance and Posture Control During Standing and Walking, Gait & Posture, 1995,3(4),193–214. 27. Chu, Y., Sell, T. and Lephart, S., The Relationship Between Biomechanical Variables and Driving Performance During the Golf Swing, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2010, 28(11),1251–9. 28. McTeigue, M, Lamb, S.R., Mottram, R. and Pirozzolo, F., Spine and Hip Motion Analysis During the Golf Swing, Science and Golf II: Proceedings of The World Scientific Congress of Golf, 1994, 50-58. 29. Miura, K.N. and Naruo, T., Accelerating and Decelerating Phases of the Wrist Motion of the Golf Swing, in: Haake, S.J., ed. The Engineering of Sport: Design and Development, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1998, 455- 463. 30. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., Fleisig, G.S. and Andrews, J.R., Swing Kinematics For Male and Female Pro Golfers., International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008,29(12),965–70. 31. Lindsay, D.M. and Horton, J.F., Trunk Motion of Male Professional Golfers Using Two Different Golf Clubs, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2002,18, 366–73. 32. Perry, S.D., Radtke, A. and Goodwin, C.R., Influence of Footwear Midsole Material Hardness On Dynamic Balance Control During Unexpected Gait Termination, Gait & Posture, 2007, 25(1), 94–8. 33. Ball, K. and Best, R., Different Centre of Pressure Patterns Within the Golf Stroke I: Cluster Analysis, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 757–70. 34. Ball, K. and Best, R., Centre of Pressure Patterns in the Golf Swing: Individual-Based Analysis, Sports Biomechanics, 2012,11(2),175–89. 35. Ball, K. and Best, R., Different Centre of Pressure Patterns Within the Golf Stroke II: Group-Based Analysis, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007, 25(7), 771–9. 36. Burden, A., Grimshaw, P. and Wallace, E., Hip and Shoulder Rotations During the Golf Swing of Sub-10 Handicap Players, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1998,16(2),165–76. 37. Edmondston, S., Aggerholm, M., Elfving, S., Flores, N., Ng, C. and Smith, R., Influence of Posture on the Range of Axial Rotation and coupled Lateral Flexion of the Thoracic Spine, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2007, 30(3), 193–9. 38. Egret, C., Nicolle, B., Dujardin, F., Weber, J. and Chollet, D., Kinematic Analysis of the Golf Swing in Men and Women Experienced Golfers, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2006, 27(6), 463–7. 39. Meister, D.W., Ladd, A.L., Butler, E.E., Zhao, B., Rogers, A.P. and Ray, C.J., Rotational Biomechanics of the Elite Golf Swing: Benchmarks For Amateurs, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2011, 27(3), 242–51. 40. Myers, J., Lephart, S., Tsai, Y-S., Sell, T., Smoliga, J. and Jolly, J., The Role of Upper Torso and Pelvis Rotation in Driving Performance During the Golf Swing., Journal of Sports Sciences, 2008, 26(2), 181–8. 41. Cheetham, P. and Martin, P., The Importance of Stretching the “ X-Factor ” in the Downswing of Golf: The “ X-Factor Stretch ,” Golf Magazine, 2001,1–11. 42. Brown, S., Nevill, A., Monk, S., Otto, S., Selbie, S. and Wallace, E., Determination of the Swing Technique Characteristics and Performance Outcome Relationship in Golf Driving For Low Handicap Female Golfers, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011, 29(14), 1483–91. 43. Bradshaw, E., Keogh, J., Hume, P., Maulder, P., Nortje, J. and Marnewick, M., The Effect of Biological Movement Variability On the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players, Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport, 2009, 80(2),185–96. 44. Horan, S., Evans, K. and Kavanagh, J., Movement Variability in the Golf Swing of Male and Female Skilled Golfers, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2011, 43(8), 1474–83. 45. Tucker, C., Is Movement Variability Relevant For the Elite Golfer? A Biomechanical and Modelling Perspective, PhD Thesis, University of Limerick, 2012. 46. Horan, S., Evans, K., Morris, N. and Kavanagh, J., Thorax and Pelvis Kinematics During the Downswing of Male and Female Skilled Golfers, Journal of Biomechanics, 2010,1–7. 47. Horan, S.A. and Kavanagh, J.J., The Control of Upper Body Segment Speed and Velocity During the Golf Swing, Sports Biomechanics, 2012,11(2),165–74. 48. Joyce, C., Burnett, A. and Ball, K., Methodological Considerations For the 3D Measurement of the X-Factor and Lower Trunk Movement in Golf., Sports Biomechanics, 2010, 9(3), 206–21. 49. Brown, S.J., Selbie, W.S. and Wallace, E.S., The X-Factor: An Evaluation of Common Methods Used to Analyse Major Inter-Segment Kinematics During the Golf Swing, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2013, 31(11), 1156–63. 50. Kwon, Y-H., Han, K.H., Como, C., Lee, S. and Singhal, K., Validity of the X-Factor Computation Methods and Relationship Between the X-Factor Parameters and Clubhead Velocity in Skilled Golfers, Sports Biomechanics, 2013,1–16.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Assessing a coach’s technical knowledge of a sporting technique can reveal measureable biomechanical parameters associated with a successful performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key technical parameters that golf coaches associate with a successful golf swing. Sixteen high-level golf coaches were observed coaching a highly skilled golfer after which they participated in a semistructured interview regarding their technical analysis of the golf swing. The data were inductively analysed and five intrinsically linked key technical parameters were identified: ‘Posture’, Body Rotation’, ‘Arm and Wrist Action’, ‘Sequential Movement and Body Segments’ and ‘Club Motion’. The parameters Posture and Body Rotation were further sub-categorised and compared to the existing biomechanical literature whereby gaps in knowledge were identified. The results of this study can be used to guide future golf biomechanics research and coaching technologies.

AB - Assessing a coach’s technical knowledge of a sporting technique can reveal measureable biomechanical parameters associated with a successful performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key technical parameters that golf coaches associate with a successful golf swing. Sixteen high-level golf coaches were observed coaching a highly skilled golfer after which they participated in a semistructured interview regarding their technical analysis of the golf swing. The data were inductively analysed and five intrinsically linked key technical parameters were identified: ‘Posture’, Body Rotation’, ‘Arm and Wrist Action’, ‘Sequential Movement and Body Segments’ and ‘Club Motion’. The parameters Posture and Body Rotation were further sub-categorised and compared to the existing biomechanical literature whereby gaps in knowledge were identified. The results of this study can be used to guide future golf biomechanics research and coaching technologies.

KW - Body Rotation

KW - Coaching-Biomechanics Interface

KW - Expertise

KW - Golf Swing Coach

KW - Posture

KW - Technical Knowledge

U2 - 10.1260/1747-9541.10.4.739

DO - 10.1260/1747-9541.10.4.739

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

T2 - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

JF - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

SN - 1747-9541

IS - 4

ER -