The insulinotropic and antihyperglycaemic properties of glucagons from the sea lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), paddlefish (Acipenseriformes) and trout (Teleostei) and oxyntomodulin from dogfish (Elasmobranchii) and ratfish (Holocephali) are compared with those of human glucagon and GLP-1 in mammalian test systems. All fish peptides produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat and 1.1 B4 human clonal β-cells and isolated mouse islets. Paddlefish glucagon was the most potent and effective peptide. The insulinotropic activity of paddlefish glucagon was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased after incubating BRIN-BD11 cells with the GLP1R antagonist, exendin-4(9-39) and the GCGR antagonist [des-His1,Pro4 ,Glu9] glucagon amide but GIPR antagonist, GIP(6-30)Cex-K40[Pal] was without effect. Paddlefish and lamprey glucagons and dogfish oxyntomodulin (10 nmol/L) produced significant (P < 0.01) increases in cAMP concentration in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells transfected with GLP1R and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with GCGR. The insulinotropic activity of paddlefish glucagon was attenuated in CRISPR/Cas9-engineered GLP1R knock-out INS-1 cells but not in GIPR knock-out cells. Intraperitoneal administration of all fish peptides, except ratfish oxyntomodulin, to mice together with a glucose load produced significant (P < 0.05) decreases in plasma glucose concentrations and paddlefish glucagon produced a greater release of insulin compared with GLP-1. Paddlefish glucagon shares the sequences Glu15-Glu16 and Glu24-Trp25-Leu26-Lys27-Asn28-Gly29 with the potent GLP1R agonist, exendin-4 so may be regarded as a naturally occurring, dual-agonist hybrid peptide that may serve as a template design of new drugs for type 2 diabetes therapy.
- Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
- exendin 4