GLP-1/GIP analogs: potential impact in the landscape of obesity pharmacotherapy: potential impact in the landscape of obesity pharmacotherapy

Ryan A Lafferty, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: Obesity is recognized as a major healthcare challenge. Following years of slow progress in discovery of safe, effective therapies for weight management, recent approval of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) mimetics, liraglutide and semaglutide, for obesity has generated considerable excitement. It is anticipated these agents will pave the way for application of tirzepatide, a highly effective glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR), GLP-1R co-agonist, recently approved for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Areas covered: Following promising weight loss in obese individuals in Phase III clinical trials, liraglutide and semaglutide were approved for weight management without diabetes. Tirzepatide has attained Fast Track designation for obesity management by the US Food and Drug Association. This narrative review summarizes experimental, preclinical, and clinical data for these agents and related GLP-1R/GIPR co-agonists, prioritizing clinical research published within the last 10 years where possible. Expert Opinion: GLP-1R mimetics are often discontinued within 24 months meaning long-term application of these agents in obesity is questioned. Combined GIPR/GLP-1R agonism appears to induce fewer side effects, indicating GLP-1R/GIPR co-agonists may be more suitable for enduring obesity management. After years of debate, this GIPR-biased GLP-1R/GIPR co-agonist highlights the therapeutic promise of including GIPR modulation for diabetes and obesity therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-597
Number of pages11
JournalExpert opinion on pharmacotherapy
Issue number5
Early online date28 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 28 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper was not funded.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Obesity
  • therapy
  • peptide
  • unimolecular
  • GLP-1
  • GIP
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/therapeutic use
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/pharmacology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  • Liraglutide/adverse effects
  • Obesity/drug therapy


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