Genomics Special Issue on 5-hydroxymethylation

Guoliang Xu, CP Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

These are exciting times not only for genomics, but also for epigenomics, the study of heritable information that is not encoded in the primary sequence of the DNA itself, but rather in the associated post-synthetic modifications to the DNA and to the histones which package it. With personalised genomics becoming increasingly possible in the era of the $1000 genome, many are beginning to look at epigenetic contributors to disease. While assessing chromatin alterations is still relatively expensive to do and difficult to standardise, DNA methylation lends itself well to next-generation sequencing techniques and highly-reproducible results can be obtained from limited patient material. The study of DNA methylation is one of the oldest branches of epigenetics and methylation is known to be crucial in such diverse processes as X-inactivation, imprinting, repeat stability and restriction of selfish elements. Methylation in mammals is largely present at cytosine in the form of 5methylcytosine (5mC) and the addition of this mark was long thought to be an irreversible process which could be removed only by replicating DNA in the absence of the methyltransferase. Recently this area has been reinvigorated by the discovery that an oxidised form of 5mC, called 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC), is relatively abundant in embryonic stem cells, as well as in the adult brain. 5mC can be oxidised to 5hmC by the TET family of enzymes (first identified in leukemias), which may represent the first stage in the active removal of 5mC, or alternatively may represent a stable epigenetic mark in itself.
LanguageEnglish
Pages313
JournalGenomics
Volume104
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Nov 2014

Fingerprint

Genomics
Epigenomics
DNA Methylation
Methylation
X Chromosome Inactivation
Cytosine
DNA
Methyltransferases
Embryonic Stem Cells
Histones
Chromatin
Mammals
Leukemia
Genome
Brain
Enzymes

Keywords

  • 5hmC
  • TETs
  • DNA demethylation

Cite this

Xu, Guoliang ; Walsh, CP. / Genomics Special Issue on 5-hydroxymethylation. 2014 ; Vol. 104, No. 5. pp. 313.
@article{3428a6e67f2c4b58afe1e99e8fd58666,
title = "Genomics Special Issue on 5-hydroxymethylation",
abstract = "These are exciting times not only for genomics, but also for epigenomics, the study of heritable information that is not encoded in the primary sequence of the DNA itself, but rather in the associated post-synthetic modifications to the DNA and to the histones which package it. With personalised genomics becoming increasingly possible in the era of the $1000 genome, many are beginning to look at epigenetic contributors to disease. While assessing chromatin alterations is still relatively expensive to do and difficult to standardise, DNA methylation lends itself well to next-generation sequencing techniques and highly-reproducible results can be obtained from limited patient material. The study of DNA methylation is one of the oldest branches of epigenetics and methylation is known to be crucial in such diverse processes as X-inactivation, imprinting, repeat stability and restriction of selfish elements. Methylation in mammals is largely present at cytosine in the form of 5methylcytosine (5mC) and the addition of this mark was long thought to be an irreversible process which could be removed only by replicating DNA in the absence of the methyltransferase. Recently this area has been reinvigorated by the discovery that an oxidised form of 5mC, called 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC), is relatively abundant in embryonic stem cells, as well as in the adult brain. 5mC can be oxidised to 5hmC by the TET family of enzymes (first identified in leukemias), which may represent the first stage in the active removal of 5mC, or alternatively may represent a stable epigenetic mark in itself.",
keywords = "5hmC, TETs, DNA demethylation",
author = "Guoliang Xu and CP Walsh",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.10.007",
language = "English",
volume = "104",
pages = "313",
number = "5",

}

Genomics Special Issue on 5-hydroxymethylation. / Xu, Guoliang; Walsh, CP.

Vol. 104, No. 5, 01.11.2014, p. 313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genomics Special Issue on 5-hydroxymethylation

AU - Xu, Guoliang

AU - Walsh, CP

PY - 2014/11/1

Y1 - 2014/11/1

N2 - These are exciting times not only for genomics, but also for epigenomics, the study of heritable information that is not encoded in the primary sequence of the DNA itself, but rather in the associated post-synthetic modifications to the DNA and to the histones which package it. With personalised genomics becoming increasingly possible in the era of the $1000 genome, many are beginning to look at epigenetic contributors to disease. While assessing chromatin alterations is still relatively expensive to do and difficult to standardise, DNA methylation lends itself well to next-generation sequencing techniques and highly-reproducible results can be obtained from limited patient material. The study of DNA methylation is one of the oldest branches of epigenetics and methylation is known to be crucial in such diverse processes as X-inactivation, imprinting, repeat stability and restriction of selfish elements. Methylation in mammals is largely present at cytosine in the form of 5methylcytosine (5mC) and the addition of this mark was long thought to be an irreversible process which could be removed only by replicating DNA in the absence of the methyltransferase. Recently this area has been reinvigorated by the discovery that an oxidised form of 5mC, called 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC), is relatively abundant in embryonic stem cells, as well as in the adult brain. 5mC can be oxidised to 5hmC by the TET family of enzymes (first identified in leukemias), which may represent the first stage in the active removal of 5mC, or alternatively may represent a stable epigenetic mark in itself.

AB - These are exciting times not only for genomics, but also for epigenomics, the study of heritable information that is not encoded in the primary sequence of the DNA itself, but rather in the associated post-synthetic modifications to the DNA and to the histones which package it. With personalised genomics becoming increasingly possible in the era of the $1000 genome, many are beginning to look at epigenetic contributors to disease. While assessing chromatin alterations is still relatively expensive to do and difficult to standardise, DNA methylation lends itself well to next-generation sequencing techniques and highly-reproducible results can be obtained from limited patient material. The study of DNA methylation is one of the oldest branches of epigenetics and methylation is known to be crucial in such diverse processes as X-inactivation, imprinting, repeat stability and restriction of selfish elements. Methylation in mammals is largely present at cytosine in the form of 5methylcytosine (5mC) and the addition of this mark was long thought to be an irreversible process which could be removed only by replicating DNA in the absence of the methyltransferase. Recently this area has been reinvigorated by the discovery that an oxidised form of 5mC, called 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC), is relatively abundant in embryonic stem cells, as well as in the adult brain. 5mC can be oxidised to 5hmC by the TET family of enzymes (first identified in leukemias), which may represent the first stage in the active removal of 5mC, or alternatively may represent a stable epigenetic mark in itself.

KW - 5hmC

KW - TETs

KW - DNA demethylation

U2 - 10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.10.007

DO - 10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.10.007

M3 - Article

VL - 104

SP - 313

IS - 5

ER -