In this review, we chart the course of the major advances in the biomedical sciences in the era pre- and post the release of the first draft sequence of the human genome, taking a focus on technology and how its development has influenced these. We additionally focus on gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 as a key technique, in particular its use in the context of complex biological mechanisms. Our aim is to shift the mode of thinking about the genome to that which encompasses a greater appreciation of the folding of the DNA molecule, DNA- RNA/protein interactions, and how these regulate expression and elaborate disease mechanisms.
Through the composition of our work, we recognise that technological improvement is conducive to a greater understanding of biological processes and life within the cell. We believe we now have the technology at our disposal that permits a better understanding of disease mechanisms, achievable through integrative data analyses. Finally, only with greater understanding of disease mechanisms can techniques such as gene editing be faithfully conducted.
- gene editing
- genomic complexity
- sequencing technology development
- complex genetics
- integrated omics