Gender Differences in the Incidence of Depression and Anxiety: Econometric Evidence from the USA

Vani Borooah

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) for the United States for the period 2001-2003, this paper addresses a vexed question relating to inter-gender differences in depression rates, namely how much of the observed difference in depression rates between men and women may be explained by differences between them in their exposure, and how much may be explained by differences between them in their response, to depression-inducing factors. The contribution of this paper is to propose a method for disentangling these two influences and to apply it to US data. The central conclusion of the paper was differences between men and women in rates of depression and anxiety were largely to be explained by differences in their responses to depression-inducing factors: the percentage contribution of inter-gender response differences to explaining the overall difference in inter-gender probabilities of being depressed was 93 percent for “sad, empty” type depression”; 92 percent for “very discouraged” type depression; and 69 percent for “loss of interest” type depression.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages663-682
    JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
    Volume11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    econometrics
    gender-specific factors
    incidence
    anxiety
    evidence
    gender
    epidemiology

    Cite this

    @article{8dae8b58e34345a28d0b99db2c891464,
    title = "Gender Differences in the Incidence of Depression and Anxiety: Econometric Evidence from the USA",
    abstract = "Using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) for the United States for the period 2001-2003, this paper addresses a vexed question relating to inter-gender differences in depression rates, namely how much of the observed difference in depression rates between men and women may be explained by differences between them in their exposure, and how much may be explained by differences between them in their response, to depression-inducing factors. The contribution of this paper is to propose a method for disentangling these two influences and to apply it to US data. The central conclusion of the paper was differences between men and women in rates of depression and anxiety were largely to be explained by differences in their responses to depression-inducing factors: the percentage contribution of inter-gender response differences to explaining the overall difference in inter-gender probabilities of being depressed was 93 percent for “sad, empty” type depression”; 92 percent for “very discouraged” type depression; and 69 percent for “loss of interest” type depression.",
    author = "Vani Borooah",
    note = "Reference text: Alegria, Margarita, Jackson, J.S., Kessler, R.C., and Takeuchi, D. (2007), Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003 [United States] [Computer file]. ICPSR20240-v5, Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, Survey Research Center [producer], 2007. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-06-19. Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A. (2002), Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA, NBER Working Papers, no. 7487, Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. Blinder, A.S. (1973), “Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates”, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 8, pp. 436-455. B{\"o}ckerman, P. and Ilmakunnas, P. (2009). {"}Unemployment and Self-assessed Health: Evidence from Panel Data{"}, Health Economics, vol. 18, pp. 161-179. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005, {"}The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Oaxaca-Blinder Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement , vol. 30, pp.279-93. Borooah, V.K. (2006), “What Makes People Happy? Some Evidence From Northern Ireland”, Journal of Happiness Studies vol. 7, pp. 427-65. Clark, A.E. and Oswald, A. (1994), {"}Unhappiness and Unemployment{"}, Economic Journal, vol. 104, pp. 648-59. Clark, A.E. (1996), {"}Job Satisfaction in Britain{"}, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 34, pp. 189-217. Clark, A.E. (1999), {"}Are Wages Habit Forming? Evidence from Micro Data{"} Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, vol. 39, pp. 179-200. Clark, A.E. (2001), {"}What Really Matters in a Job? Hedonic Measurement Using Quit Data{"}, Labour Economics, vol. 8, pp. 223-242. Clark A.E, Diener E, Georgellis Y, Lucas R. 2008, {"}Lags and leads in life satisfaction: a test of the baseline hypothesis{"}, Economic Journal vol. 118, pp. F222–F243. Culbertson, F.M. (1997), “Depression and Gender: An International Review”, American Psychologist, vol. 52, pp. 25-31. Dunlop, D.D, Song, J., Lyons, J.S., Manheim, L.M., and Chang, R.W., (2003) {"}Racial/Ethnic Differences in Rates of Depression Among Preretirement Adults{"}, American Journal of Public Health , vol. 93, pp. 1945-1952. Easterlin, R.A. (1974), {"}Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence{"}, in P.A. David and M.W. Reder, Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramowitz, New York: Academic Press. Easterlin, R.A. (1987), Birth and Fortune: The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare, Chicago: Chicago University Press (2nd edition). Easterlin, R.A. (2001), {"}Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory{"}, Economic Journal, vol. 111, pp. 465-484. Frank, R.H. (1985), Choosing the Right Pond, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frank, R.H. (1997), {"}The Frame of Reference as a Public Good{"}, Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1832-47. Frank, R.H. (1999), Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Frey, B.S. and Stutzer, A. (2002), Happiness and Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Hirsch, F. (1976), The Social Limits to Growth, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Kessler, R.C, McGonagle, K.A, Zhao, S. et al. (1994), “Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey”, Arch Gen Psychiatry vol. 51, pp.8-19. Layard, R. (2002), Rethinking Public Economics: Implications of Rivalry and Habit, Centre for Economic Performance, London: London School of Economics. Layard, R. (2003), Happiness: Has Social Science a Clue? Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures 2002/3, London: London School of Economics. Layard, R. (2006), The Depression Report: A New Deal for Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Centre for Economic Performance, London: London School of Economics. Mangan, J. (2000), Workers Without Traditional Employment: an International Study of non-Standard Work, Cheltenhan: Edward Elgar. Meltzer H, Gill B, Petticrew M, Hinds K (1995), OCPS Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity in Great Britain, Report 1: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among adults living in private households, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Murakumi, J. (2002), “Gender and Depression: Explaining the Different Rates of Depression between Men and Women”, Perspectives in Psychology (the undergraduate Psychology journal of the University of Pennsylvania), vol. 5, pp. 27-34. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters, vol. 61, pp. 115-20. Noel-Hoeksema, S. (1990), Sex Differences in Depression, Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. Noel-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., and Grayson, C. (1999), “Explaining the Gender Difference in Depression”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 77, pp. 1061-72. Noel-Hoeksema, S. (2001), “Gender Differences in Depression”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 10, pp. 173-76. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, vol. 14, pp. 693-709. Oswald, A. (1997), {"}Happiness and Economic Performance{"}, Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1815-31. Piccinelli, M. and Wilkinson, G. (2000), “Gender Differences in Depression”, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, p. 486-92. Scitovsky, T. (1976), The Joyless Economy, New York: Oxford University Press. Weiss, E.L., Longhurst, J.G., and Mazure, C.M. (1999), “Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Depression in Women: Psychosocial and Neurobiological Correlates”, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, pp. 816-28. Weissman, M.M., Bland, R.C., Canino, G.J., Faravelli,C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H.-G., Joyce, P.R., Karam, E.G., Lee, C.-K., Lellouch, J., Lepine, J.- P., Newman, S.C., Rubio-Stipc, M., Wells, E.,Wickramaratne, P.J., Wittchen, H.-U., & Yeh, E.-K. (1996), “Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder”, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 276 , pp. 293–299.",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1007/s10902-009-9155-4",
    language = "English",
    volume = "11",
    pages = "663--682",
    journal = "Journal of Happiness Studies",
    issn = "1389-4978",

    }

    Gender Differences in the Incidence of Depression and Anxiety: Econometric Evidence from the USA. / Borooah, Vani.

    In: Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 11, 2010, p. 663-682.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Gender Differences in the Incidence of Depression and Anxiety: Econometric Evidence from the USA

    AU - Borooah, Vani

    N1 - Reference text: Alegria, Margarita, Jackson, J.S., Kessler, R.C., and Takeuchi, D. (2007), Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003 [United States] [Computer file]. ICPSR20240-v5, Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, Survey Research Center [producer], 2007. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-06-19. Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A. (2002), Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA, NBER Working Papers, no. 7487, Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. Blinder, A.S. (1973), “Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates”, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 8, pp. 436-455. Böckerman, P. and Ilmakunnas, P. (2009). "Unemployment and Self-assessed Health: Evidence from Panel Data", Health Economics, vol. 18, pp. 161-179. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005, "The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Oaxaca-Blinder Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement , vol. 30, pp.279-93. Borooah, V.K. (2006), “What Makes People Happy? Some Evidence From Northern Ireland”, Journal of Happiness Studies vol. 7, pp. 427-65. Clark, A.E. and Oswald, A. (1994), "Unhappiness and Unemployment", Economic Journal, vol. 104, pp. 648-59. Clark, A.E. (1996), "Job Satisfaction in Britain", British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 34, pp. 189-217. Clark, A.E. (1999), "Are Wages Habit Forming? Evidence from Micro Data" Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, vol. 39, pp. 179-200. Clark, A.E. (2001), "What Really Matters in a Job? Hedonic Measurement Using Quit Data", Labour Economics, vol. 8, pp. 223-242. Clark A.E, Diener E, Georgellis Y, Lucas R. 2008, "Lags and leads in life satisfaction: a test of the baseline hypothesis", Economic Journal vol. 118, pp. F222–F243. Culbertson, F.M. (1997), “Depression and Gender: An International Review”, American Psychologist, vol. 52, pp. 25-31. Dunlop, D.D, Song, J., Lyons, J.S., Manheim, L.M., and Chang, R.W., (2003) "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Rates of Depression Among Preretirement Adults", American Journal of Public Health , vol. 93, pp. 1945-1952. Easterlin, R.A. (1974), "Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence", in P.A. David and M.W. Reder, Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramowitz, New York: Academic Press. Easterlin, R.A. (1987), Birth and Fortune: The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare, Chicago: Chicago University Press (2nd edition). Easterlin, R.A. (2001), "Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory", Economic Journal, vol. 111, pp. 465-484. Frank, R.H. (1985), Choosing the Right Pond, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frank, R.H. (1997), "The Frame of Reference as a Public Good", Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1832-47. Frank, R.H. (1999), Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Frey, B.S. and Stutzer, A. (2002), Happiness and Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Hirsch, F. (1976), The Social Limits to Growth, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Kessler, R.C, McGonagle, K.A, Zhao, S. et al. (1994), “Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey”, Arch Gen Psychiatry vol. 51, pp.8-19. Layard, R. (2002), Rethinking Public Economics: Implications of Rivalry and Habit, Centre for Economic Performance, London: London School of Economics. Layard, R. (2003), Happiness: Has Social Science a Clue? Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures 2002/3, London: London School of Economics. Layard, R. (2006), The Depression Report: A New Deal for Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Centre for Economic Performance, London: London School of Economics. Mangan, J. (2000), Workers Without Traditional Employment: an International Study of non-Standard Work, Cheltenhan: Edward Elgar. Meltzer H, Gill B, Petticrew M, Hinds K (1995), OCPS Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity in Great Britain, Report 1: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among adults living in private households, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Murakumi, J. (2002), “Gender and Depression: Explaining the Different Rates of Depression between Men and Women”, Perspectives in Psychology (the undergraduate Psychology journal of the University of Pennsylvania), vol. 5, pp. 27-34. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters, vol. 61, pp. 115-20. Noel-Hoeksema, S. (1990), Sex Differences in Depression, Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. Noel-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., and Grayson, C. (1999), “Explaining the Gender Difference in Depression”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 77, pp. 1061-72. Noel-Hoeksema, S. (2001), “Gender Differences in Depression”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 10, pp. 173-76. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, vol. 14, pp. 693-709. Oswald, A. (1997), "Happiness and Economic Performance", Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1815-31. Piccinelli, M. and Wilkinson, G. (2000), “Gender Differences in Depression”, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, p. 486-92. Scitovsky, T. (1976), The Joyless Economy, New York: Oxford University Press. Weiss, E.L., Longhurst, J.G., and Mazure, C.M. (1999), “Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Depression in Women: Psychosocial and Neurobiological Correlates”, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, pp. 816-28. Weissman, M.M., Bland, R.C., Canino, G.J., Faravelli,C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H.-G., Joyce, P.R., Karam, E.G., Lee, C.-K., Lellouch, J., Lepine, J.- P., Newman, S.C., Rubio-Stipc, M., Wells, E.,Wickramaratne, P.J., Wittchen, H.-U., & Yeh, E.-K. (1996), “Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder”, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 276 , pp. 293–299.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) for the United States for the period 2001-2003, this paper addresses a vexed question relating to inter-gender differences in depression rates, namely how much of the observed difference in depression rates between men and women may be explained by differences between them in their exposure, and how much may be explained by differences between them in their response, to depression-inducing factors. The contribution of this paper is to propose a method for disentangling these two influences and to apply it to US data. The central conclusion of the paper was differences between men and women in rates of depression and anxiety were largely to be explained by differences in their responses to depression-inducing factors: the percentage contribution of inter-gender response differences to explaining the overall difference in inter-gender probabilities of being depressed was 93 percent for “sad, empty” type depression”; 92 percent for “very discouraged” type depression; and 69 percent for “loss of interest” type depression.

    AB - Using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) for the United States for the period 2001-2003, this paper addresses a vexed question relating to inter-gender differences in depression rates, namely how much of the observed difference in depression rates between men and women may be explained by differences between them in their exposure, and how much may be explained by differences between them in their response, to depression-inducing factors. The contribution of this paper is to propose a method for disentangling these two influences and to apply it to US data. The central conclusion of the paper was differences between men and women in rates of depression and anxiety were largely to be explained by differences in their responses to depression-inducing factors: the percentage contribution of inter-gender response differences to explaining the overall difference in inter-gender probabilities of being depressed was 93 percent for “sad, empty” type depression”; 92 percent for “very discouraged” type depression; and 69 percent for “loss of interest” type depression.

    U2 - 10.1007/s10902-009-9155-4

    DO - 10.1007/s10902-009-9155-4

    M3 - Article

    VL - 11

    SP - 663

    EP - 682

    JO - Journal of Happiness Studies

    T2 - Journal of Happiness Studies

    JF - Journal of Happiness Studies

    SN - 1389-4978

    ER -