Petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic metals are sources of environmental contamination and are harmful to all ecosystems. Fungi have metabolic and morphological plasticity that turn them into potential prototypes for technological development in biological remediation of these contaminants due to their ability to interact with a specific contaminant and/or produced metabolites. Although fungal bioinoculants producing enzymes, biosurfactants, polymers, pigments and organic acids have potential to be protagonists in mycoremediation of hydrocarbons and toxic metals, they can still be only adjuvants together with bacteria, microalgae, plants or animals in such processes. However, the sudden accelerated development of emerging technologies related to the use of potential fungal bioproducts such as bioinoculants, enzymes and biosurfactants in the remediation of these contaminants, has boosted fungal bioprocesses to achieve higher performance and possible real application. In this review, we explore scientific and technological advances in bioprocesses related to the production and/or application of these potential fungal bioproducts when used in remediation of hydrocarbons and toxic metals from an integral perspective of biotechnological process development. In turn, it sheds light to overcome existing technological limitations or enable new experimental designs in the remediation of these and other emerging contaminants.
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© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Mycoremediation · Contamination · Bioinoculants · Enzymes · Biosurfactants