From group recognition to labour market insertion:civil society and Canada’s changing immigrantsettlement regime

Nicholas Acheson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Canada has the second highest rate of immigration in the world and retains a very high rate of conversion of new immigrants into citizens. But naturalization rates are now beginning to fall at a time when the Federal government approach both to the operation of multicultural policies and to the funding of civil society has been subject to a profound restructuring of welfare institutions that has downplayed group claims to civic entitlements and emphasised the insertion of immigrants into the labour market. This article draws on documentary evidence and interviews with Chief Executives of immigrant serving organizations in an Ontario city to show how these changes have affected the role of civil society in immigrant settlement. It argues that the Canadian case provides strong support for the view that the impact of civil society on immigrant political integration is governed by opportunities and constraints in the political environment in which it operates.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages231-251
    JournalBritish Journal of Canadian Studies
    Volume25
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 27 Sep 2012

    Fingerprint

    civil society
    labor market
    immigrant
    regime
    Canada
    immigrant organization
    Group
    political integration
    naturalization
    Federal Government
    restructuring
    immigration
    welfare
    funding
    citizen
    Civil Society
    Labour Market
    Immigrants
    Insertion
    interview

    Cite this

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    title = "From group recognition to labour market insertion:civil society and Canada’s changing immigrantsettlement regime",
    abstract = "Canada has the second highest rate of immigration in the world and retains a very high rate of conversion of new immigrants into citizens. But naturalization rates are now beginning to fall at a time when the Federal government approach both to the operation of multicultural policies and to the funding of civil society has been subject to a profound restructuring of welfare institutions that has downplayed group claims to civic entitlements and emphasised the insertion of immigrants into the labour market. This article draws on documentary evidence and interviews with Chief Executives of immigrant serving organizations in an Ontario city to show how these changes have affected the role of civil society in immigrant settlement. It argues that the Canadian case provides strong support for the view that the impact of civil society on immigrant political integration is governed by opportunities and constraints in the political environment in which it operates.",
    author = "Nicholas Acheson",
    note = "Reference text: Aliweiwi, J. and R. Laforest, 2009, ‘Citizenship, Immigration and the Conservative Agenda’, in R. Laforest (ed.), The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: on the Cutting Edge (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press), pp. 137-153 Almond, G., S. Verba, 1963, The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in five Nations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) Bloemraad, I., 2006, Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada (Berkeley CA: University of California Press) Bloemraad, I., 2005, ‘The Limits of de Tocqueville: How Government Facilitates Organizational Capacity in Newcomer Communities’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 865-887 Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2005, The Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (available at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/ontario/ont-2005-agree.asp Downloaded 26/08/11) Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2011, Federal/Territorial Agreements (available at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/index.asp Downloaded 15/12/11) City of Ottawa, 2011, Population and Households: Estimates by sub-area, Year end 2010 (available at http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/statistics/pop_hhld/2010_ph_sub_en.html Downloaded 15/12/11) City of Ottawa, 2011, Employment by Major Sector, Ottawa-Gatineau CMA 1995-2007 (available at http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/statistics/data_handbook/economics/table_41_en.html Downloaded 15/12/11) Chui, T., K. Tran, H. Maheux, 2007, Immigration in Canada: a Portrait of the Foreign Born Population, 2006 Census (Ottawa: Statistics Canada) Craig, G., 2011, ‘Forward to the Past: can the UK black and minority ethnic third sector survive?’ Voluntary Sector Review, 2.3, 367-389 De Tocqueville, A., 1945, Democracy in America, (New York: A.A. Knopf) Elson, P.R., 2011, ‘The Emergence of Structured Subnational Voluntary Sector-Government Relationships in Canada: a Historical Institutional Analysis’, Voluntary Sector Review, 2.2, 135-156 Fox, J. and W. Gois, 2010, Migrant civil society: Ten propositions for discussion, Santa Cruz CA: Center for Global, International and Regional Studies, University of California (available at http://escholarship.org/uc/item/89m7b03q downloaded 15.12.2011) Hooghe, M., 2005, ‘Ethnic Organizations and Social Movement Theory: the Political Opportunity Structure for Ethnic Mobilization in Flanders’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35.5, 975-990 Hopkins, G., 2006, ‘Somali Community Organizations in London and Toronto: Collaboration and Effectiveness’ Journal of Refugee Studies, 19.3, 361-380 Howard, M.M., 2009, The Politics of Citizenship in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press) Hussen, A., 2011, ‘Al Shabaab: Recruitment and Radicalization within the Canadian Somali Community and that Community’s Response’, Ottawa: Testimony to the Cross Cultural Roundtable on Security, July 27 (available at homeland.house.gov/sites/homeland.../Testimony{\%}20Hussen.pdf downloaded 15.12.2011) Jensen, J. and D. Saint-Martin, 2003, ‘New Routes to Social Cohesion? Citizenship and the Social Investment State’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 28. 1, 77-99 Joppke, C., 2010, Citizenship and Immigration (Cambridge: Polity Press) Koopmans, R. and P. Statham, 2000, ‘Migration and ethnic relations as a field of political contention: an opportunity structure approach’ in R. Koopmans and P. Statham (ed.) Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics: Comparative European Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 13-56 Koopmans, R., 2004, ‘Migrant Mobilization and Political Opportunities: Variation among German cities and a comparison with the United Kingdom and the Netherlands’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30.3, 449-470 Ku, J., 2011, ‘Ethnic Activism and Multicultural Politics in Immigrant Settlement in Toronto, Canada’ Social Identities, 17.2, 271-289 Kymlicka, W., 2010, ‘The Current State of Multiculturalism in Canada and Research Themes on Canadian Multiculturalism’ (Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada) Lister, R., 2004, ‘the Third Way’s Social Investment State’ in J. Lewis and R. Surender (ed.) Welfare State Change: Towards the Third Way? (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 157-181 Lister, R., 2010, ‘The Age of Responsibility: Social Policy and Citizenship in the Early 21st Century’ in C. Holden, M. Kilkey, G. Ramia (ed.) Social Policy Review 23, (Bristol: the Policy Press), pp. 63-84 Midaynta Community Services, 2010, Annual Report, Toronto: Midaynta Community Services (available at http://www.midaynta.com/areports.php downloaded 15.12.2011) Moya, J., 2005, ‘Immigrants and Associations: a Global and Historical Perspective’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 833-864 OCASI, 2011, OCASI Members, Toronto: Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (available at http://www.ocasi.org/index.php?catid=138 Downloaded 27/08/11) OECD, 2011, International Migration Outlook (Paris: SOPEMI 2011 OECD Publishing) OLIP, 2011, Ottawa Immigration Strategy: Planning Together for Prosperity, Vibrancy and Inclusion (Ottawa: Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership) Phillips, S., 2006, ‘The Intersection between Governance and Citizenship in Canada: Not Quite the Third Way’ IRPP Policy Matters 7.4 Phillips, S., 2009, ‘The Harper Government and the Voluntary Sector: Whither a Policy Agenda?’ in R. Laforest (ed.) The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting Edge (Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queens University Press), pp. 7-34 Putnam, R.D., (with R. Leonardi, R. Nanetti), 1993, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) Putnam, R.D., 2000, Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster) Schrover, M. and F. Vermeulen, 2005, ‘Immigrant Organizations’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 823-832 Scott, K., S. Tsoukalas, P. Roberts, D. Lasby, 2003, The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Ontario: Regional; Highlights of the National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations, (Toronto: Imagine Canada) Seidle, F.L., 2010, The Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement: Assessment and Options for Renewal (Toronto: Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation, University of Toronto) Statistics Canada, 2009, Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force and Income Characteristics Catalogue no: 97-555-X2006058 Tran, K. S. Kustec, T. Chui, 2005, Becoming Canadian: Intent, process and outcome, (Canadian Social Trends Catalogue No. 11-008, Ottawa: Statistics Canada) Vermeulen, F., 2006, The Immigrant Organizing Process: Turkish Organizations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organizations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000, Amsterdam: IMISCOE Dissertations, Amsterdam University Press White, D., 2012, ‘Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec Compared’, British Journal of Canadian Studies, 12.2, Woolcock, M. J.V., 1998, Social Theory, Development Policy and Poverty Alleviation, a Comparative-Historical Analysis of Group-based Banking in Developing Economies (Providence, RI: Brown University Press)",
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    From group recognition to labour market insertion:civil society and Canada’s changing immigrantsettlement regime. / Acheson, Nicholas.

    In: British Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, 27.09.2012, p. 231-251.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - From group recognition to labour market insertion:civil society and Canada’s changing immigrantsettlement regime

    AU - Acheson, Nicholas

    N1 - Reference text: Aliweiwi, J. and R. Laforest, 2009, ‘Citizenship, Immigration and the Conservative Agenda’, in R. Laforest (ed.), The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: on the Cutting Edge (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press), pp. 137-153 Almond, G., S. Verba, 1963, The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in five Nations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) Bloemraad, I., 2006, Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada (Berkeley CA: University of California Press) Bloemraad, I., 2005, ‘The Limits of de Tocqueville: How Government Facilitates Organizational Capacity in Newcomer Communities’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 865-887 Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2005, The Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (available at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/ontario/ont-2005-agree.asp Downloaded 26/08/11) Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2011, Federal/Territorial Agreements (available at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/index.asp Downloaded 15/12/11) City of Ottawa, 2011, Population and Households: Estimates by sub-area, Year end 2010 (available at http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/statistics/pop_hhld/2010_ph_sub_en.html Downloaded 15/12/11) City of Ottawa, 2011, Employment by Major Sector, Ottawa-Gatineau CMA 1995-2007 (available at http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/statistics/data_handbook/economics/table_41_en.html Downloaded 15/12/11) Chui, T., K. Tran, H. Maheux, 2007, Immigration in Canada: a Portrait of the Foreign Born Population, 2006 Census (Ottawa: Statistics Canada) Craig, G., 2011, ‘Forward to the Past: can the UK black and minority ethnic third sector survive?’ Voluntary Sector Review, 2.3, 367-389 De Tocqueville, A., 1945, Democracy in America, (New York: A.A. Knopf) Elson, P.R., 2011, ‘The Emergence of Structured Subnational Voluntary Sector-Government Relationships in Canada: a Historical Institutional Analysis’, Voluntary Sector Review, 2.2, 135-156 Fox, J. and W. Gois, 2010, Migrant civil society: Ten propositions for discussion, Santa Cruz CA: Center for Global, International and Regional Studies, University of California (available at http://escholarship.org/uc/item/89m7b03q downloaded 15.12.2011) Hooghe, M., 2005, ‘Ethnic Organizations and Social Movement Theory: the Political Opportunity Structure for Ethnic Mobilization in Flanders’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35.5, 975-990 Hopkins, G., 2006, ‘Somali Community Organizations in London and Toronto: Collaboration and Effectiveness’ Journal of Refugee Studies, 19.3, 361-380 Howard, M.M., 2009, The Politics of Citizenship in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press) Hussen, A., 2011, ‘Al Shabaab: Recruitment and Radicalization within the Canadian Somali Community and that Community’s Response’, Ottawa: Testimony to the Cross Cultural Roundtable on Security, July 27 (available at homeland.house.gov/sites/homeland.../Testimony%20Hussen.pdf downloaded 15.12.2011) Jensen, J. and D. Saint-Martin, 2003, ‘New Routes to Social Cohesion? Citizenship and the Social Investment State’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 28. 1, 77-99 Joppke, C., 2010, Citizenship and Immigration (Cambridge: Polity Press) Koopmans, R. and P. Statham, 2000, ‘Migration and ethnic relations as a field of political contention: an opportunity structure approach’ in R. Koopmans and P. Statham (ed.) Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics: Comparative European Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 13-56 Koopmans, R., 2004, ‘Migrant Mobilization and Political Opportunities: Variation among German cities and a comparison with the United Kingdom and the Netherlands’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30.3, 449-470 Ku, J., 2011, ‘Ethnic Activism and Multicultural Politics in Immigrant Settlement in Toronto, Canada’ Social Identities, 17.2, 271-289 Kymlicka, W., 2010, ‘The Current State of Multiculturalism in Canada and Research Themes on Canadian Multiculturalism’ (Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada) Lister, R., 2004, ‘the Third Way’s Social Investment State’ in J. Lewis and R. Surender (ed.) Welfare State Change: Towards the Third Way? (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 157-181 Lister, R., 2010, ‘The Age of Responsibility: Social Policy and Citizenship in the Early 21st Century’ in C. Holden, M. Kilkey, G. Ramia (ed.) Social Policy Review 23, (Bristol: the Policy Press), pp. 63-84 Midaynta Community Services, 2010, Annual Report, Toronto: Midaynta Community Services (available at http://www.midaynta.com/areports.php downloaded 15.12.2011) Moya, J., 2005, ‘Immigrants and Associations: a Global and Historical Perspective’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 833-864 OCASI, 2011, OCASI Members, Toronto: Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (available at http://www.ocasi.org/index.php?catid=138 Downloaded 27/08/11) OECD, 2011, International Migration Outlook (Paris: SOPEMI 2011 OECD Publishing) OLIP, 2011, Ottawa Immigration Strategy: Planning Together for Prosperity, Vibrancy and Inclusion (Ottawa: Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership) Phillips, S., 2006, ‘The Intersection between Governance and Citizenship in Canada: Not Quite the Third Way’ IRPP Policy Matters 7.4 Phillips, S., 2009, ‘The Harper Government and the Voluntary Sector: Whither a Policy Agenda?’ in R. Laforest (ed.) The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting Edge (Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queens University Press), pp. 7-34 Putnam, R.D., (with R. Leonardi, R. Nanetti), 1993, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) Putnam, R.D., 2000, Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster) Schrover, M. and F. Vermeulen, 2005, ‘Immigrant Organizations’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5, 823-832 Scott, K., S. Tsoukalas, P. Roberts, D. Lasby, 2003, The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Ontario: Regional; Highlights of the National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations, (Toronto: Imagine Canada) Seidle, F.L., 2010, The Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement: Assessment and Options for Renewal (Toronto: Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation, University of Toronto) Statistics Canada, 2009, Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force and Income Characteristics Catalogue no: 97-555-X2006058 Tran, K. S. Kustec, T. Chui, 2005, Becoming Canadian: Intent, process and outcome, (Canadian Social Trends Catalogue No. 11-008, Ottawa: Statistics Canada) Vermeulen, F., 2006, The Immigrant Organizing Process: Turkish Organizations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organizations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000, Amsterdam: IMISCOE Dissertations, Amsterdam University Press White, D., 2012, ‘Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec Compared’, British Journal of Canadian Studies, 12.2, Woolcock, M. J.V., 1998, Social Theory, Development Policy and Poverty Alleviation, a Comparative-Historical Analysis of Group-based Banking in Developing Economies (Providence, RI: Brown University Press)

    PY - 2012/9/27

    Y1 - 2012/9/27

    N2 - Canada has the second highest rate of immigration in the world and retains a very high rate of conversion of new immigrants into citizens. But naturalization rates are now beginning to fall at a time when the Federal government approach both to the operation of multicultural policies and to the funding of civil society has been subject to a profound restructuring of welfare institutions that has downplayed group claims to civic entitlements and emphasised the insertion of immigrants into the labour market. This article draws on documentary evidence and interviews with Chief Executives of immigrant serving organizations in an Ontario city to show how these changes have affected the role of civil society in immigrant settlement. It argues that the Canadian case provides strong support for the view that the impact of civil society on immigrant political integration is governed by opportunities and constraints in the political environment in which it operates.

    AB - Canada has the second highest rate of immigration in the world and retains a very high rate of conversion of new immigrants into citizens. But naturalization rates are now beginning to fall at a time when the Federal government approach both to the operation of multicultural policies and to the funding of civil society has been subject to a profound restructuring of welfare institutions that has downplayed group claims to civic entitlements and emphasised the insertion of immigrants into the labour market. This article draws on documentary evidence and interviews with Chief Executives of immigrant serving organizations in an Ontario city to show how these changes have affected the role of civil society in immigrant settlement. It argues that the Canadian case provides strong support for the view that the impact of civil society on immigrant political integration is governed by opportunities and constraints in the political environment in which it operates.

    U2 - 10.3828/bjcs.2012.12

    DO - 10.3828/bjcs.2012.12

    M3 - Article

    VL - 25

    SP - 231

    EP - 251

    JO - British Journal of Canadian Studies

    T2 - British Journal of Canadian Studies

    JF - British Journal of Canadian Studies

    SN - 0269-9222

    IS - 2

    ER -