FRANKINCENSE ESSENTIAL OIL SUPPRESSES MELANOMA CANCER THROUGH DOWN REGULATION OF BCL-2/BAX CASCADE SIGNALING AND AMELORATE HEPTOTOXICITY VIA PHASE I AND II DRUG METABOLISING ENZYMES

Hakkim Faruk, Hamid Bakshi, Shabia Khan, Mohamad Nasef, Rabia Farzand, Luay Rashan, Al-Balushi MS, Hasson SS, P. A. McCarron, Murtaza M Tambuwala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy and according to the World Health Organization 132,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed worldwide each year. Surgical resection and chemo/drug treatments opted for early and late stage of melanoma respectively, however detrimental post surgical and chemotherapy consequences are inevitable. Noticeably melanoma drug treatments are associated with liver injuries such as hepatitis and cholestasis which are very common. Alleviation of these clinical manifestations with better treatment options would enhance prognosis status and patients survival. Natural products which induce cytotoxicity with minimum side effects are of interest to achieve high therapeutic efficiency. In this study we investigated anti-melanoma and hepatoprotective activities of frankincense essential oil (FEO) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Pretreatment with FEO induce a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability of mouse (B16-F10) and human melanoma (FM94) but not in the normal human epithelial melanocytes (HNEM). Immunoblot analysis showed that FEO induces down regulation of Bcl-2 and up regulation of BAX in B16-F10 cells whereas in FM94 cells FEO induced dose-dependent cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Furthermore, FEO (10 μg/ml) treatment down regulated MCL1 in a time-dependent manner in FM94 cells. In vivo toxicity analysis reveals that weekly single dose of FEO (1200 mg/kg body weight) did not elicit detrimental effect on body weight during four weeks of experimental period. Histology of tissue sections also indicated that there were no observable histopathologic differences in the brain, heart, liver, and kidney compare to control groups. FEO (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) treatments significantly reduced the tumor burden in C57BL/6 mice melanoma model. Acetaminophen (750 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice. Pre treatment with FEO (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) for seven days retained hematology (complete blood count), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALK, total bilirubin, total protein, glucose, albumin/globulin ratio, cholesterol and triglyceride), and the level of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochromeb5, glutathione-S-transferase) which were obstructed by the administration of acetaminophen. Further liver histology showed that FEO treatments reversed the damages (central vein dilation, hemorrhage, and nuclei condensation) caused by acetaminophen. In conclusion, FEO elicited marked anti-melanoma in both in vitro and in vivo with a significant heptoprotection.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3472
Number of pages3490
JournalOncotarget
Volume10
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2019

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Volatile Oils
Melanoma
Down-Regulation
Enzymes
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Neoplasms
Body Weight
Acetaminophen
Liver
Therapeutics
Histology
Frankincense
Blood Cell Count
Caspase 9
Melanocytes
Cholestasis
Globulins
Wounds and Injuries
Hematology
Glutathione Transferase

Keywords

  • Melanoma
  • Hepatoprotection
  • Tumor remission
  • Apoptosis
  • Essential oil
  • Frankincense

Cite this

Faruk, Hakkim ; Bakshi, Hamid ; Khan, Shabia ; Nasef, Mohamad ; Farzand, Rabia ; Rashan, Luay ; MS, Al-Balushi ; SS, Hasson ; McCarron, P. A. ; Tambuwala, Murtaza M. / FRANKINCENSE ESSENTIAL OIL SUPPRESSES MELANOMA CANCER THROUGH DOWN REGULATION OF BCL-2/BAX CASCADE SIGNALING AND AMELORATE HEPTOTOXICITY VIA PHASE I AND II DRUG METABOLISING ENZYMES. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 37. pp. 3472.
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abstract = "Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy and according to the World Health Organization 132,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed worldwide each year. Surgical resection and chemo/drug treatments opted for early and late stage of melanoma respectively, however detrimental post surgical and chemotherapy consequences are inevitable. Noticeably melanoma drug treatments are associated with liver injuries such as hepatitis and cholestasis which are very common. Alleviation of these clinical manifestations with better treatment options would enhance prognosis status and patients survival. Natural products which induce cytotoxicity with minimum side effects are of interest to achieve high therapeutic efficiency. In this study we investigated anti-melanoma and hepatoprotective activities of frankincense essential oil (FEO) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Pretreatment with FEO induce a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability of mouse (B16-F10) and human melanoma (FM94) but not in the normal human epithelial melanocytes (HNEM). Immunoblot analysis showed that FEO induces down regulation of Bcl-2 and up regulation of BAX in B16-F10 cells whereas in FM94 cells FEO induced dose-dependent cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Furthermore, FEO (10 μg/ml) treatment down regulated MCL1 in a time-dependent manner in FM94 cells. In vivo toxicity analysis reveals that weekly single dose of FEO (1200 mg/kg body weight) did not elicit detrimental effect on body weight during four weeks of experimental period. Histology of tissue sections also indicated that there were no observable histopathologic differences in the brain, heart, liver, and kidney compare to control groups. FEO (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) treatments significantly reduced the tumor burden in C57BL/6 mice melanoma model. Acetaminophen (750 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice. Pre treatment with FEO (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) for seven days retained hematology (complete blood count), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALK, total bilirubin, total protein, glucose, albumin/globulin ratio, cholesterol and triglyceride), and the level of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochromeb5, glutathione-S-transferase) which were obstructed by the administration of acetaminophen. Further liver histology showed that FEO treatments reversed the damages (central vein dilation, hemorrhage, and nuclei condensation) caused by acetaminophen. In conclusion, FEO elicited marked anti-melanoma in both in vitro and in vivo with a significant heptoprotection.",
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FRANKINCENSE ESSENTIAL OIL SUPPRESSES MELANOMA CANCER THROUGH DOWN REGULATION OF BCL-2/BAX CASCADE SIGNALING AND AMELORATE HEPTOTOXICITY VIA PHASE I AND II DRUG METABOLISING ENZYMES. / Faruk, Hakkim; Bakshi, Hamid ; Khan, Shabia ; Nasef, Mohamad; Farzand, Rabia; Rashan, Luay; MS, Al-Balushi; SS, Hasson; McCarron, P. A.; Tambuwala, Murtaza M.

Vol. 10, No. 37, 28.05.2019, p. 3472.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - FRANKINCENSE ESSENTIAL OIL SUPPRESSES MELANOMA CANCER THROUGH DOWN REGULATION OF BCL-2/BAX CASCADE SIGNALING AND AMELORATE HEPTOTOXICITY VIA PHASE I AND II DRUG METABOLISING ENZYMES

AU - Faruk, Hakkim

AU - Bakshi, Hamid

AU - Khan, Shabia

AU - Nasef, Mohamad

AU - Farzand, Rabia

AU - Rashan, Luay

AU - MS, Al-Balushi

AU - SS, Hasson

AU - McCarron, P. A.

AU - Tambuwala, Murtaza M

PY - 2019/5/28

Y1 - 2019/5/28

N2 - Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy and according to the World Health Organization 132,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed worldwide each year. Surgical resection and chemo/drug treatments opted for early and late stage of melanoma respectively, however detrimental post surgical and chemotherapy consequences are inevitable. Noticeably melanoma drug treatments are associated with liver injuries such as hepatitis and cholestasis which are very common. Alleviation of these clinical manifestations with better treatment options would enhance prognosis status and patients survival. Natural products which induce cytotoxicity with minimum side effects are of interest to achieve high therapeutic efficiency. In this study we investigated anti-melanoma and hepatoprotective activities of frankincense essential oil (FEO) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Pretreatment with FEO induce a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability of mouse (B16-F10) and human melanoma (FM94) but not in the normal human epithelial melanocytes (HNEM). Immunoblot analysis showed that FEO induces down regulation of Bcl-2 and up regulation of BAX in B16-F10 cells whereas in FM94 cells FEO induced dose-dependent cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Furthermore, FEO (10 μg/ml) treatment down regulated MCL1 in a time-dependent manner in FM94 cells. In vivo toxicity analysis reveals that weekly single dose of FEO (1200 mg/kg body weight) did not elicit detrimental effect on body weight during four weeks of experimental period. Histology of tissue sections also indicated that there were no observable histopathologic differences in the brain, heart, liver, and kidney compare to control groups. FEO (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) treatments significantly reduced the tumor burden in C57BL/6 mice melanoma model. Acetaminophen (750 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice. Pre treatment with FEO (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) for seven days retained hematology (complete blood count), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALK, total bilirubin, total protein, glucose, albumin/globulin ratio, cholesterol and triglyceride), and the level of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochromeb5, glutathione-S-transferase) which were obstructed by the administration of acetaminophen. Further liver histology showed that FEO treatments reversed the damages (central vein dilation, hemorrhage, and nuclei condensation) caused by acetaminophen. In conclusion, FEO elicited marked anti-melanoma in both in vitro and in vivo with a significant heptoprotection.

AB - Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy and according to the World Health Organization 132,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed worldwide each year. Surgical resection and chemo/drug treatments opted for early and late stage of melanoma respectively, however detrimental post surgical and chemotherapy consequences are inevitable. Noticeably melanoma drug treatments are associated with liver injuries such as hepatitis and cholestasis which are very common. Alleviation of these clinical manifestations with better treatment options would enhance prognosis status and patients survival. Natural products which induce cytotoxicity with minimum side effects are of interest to achieve high therapeutic efficiency. In this study we investigated anti-melanoma and hepatoprotective activities of frankincense essential oil (FEO) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Pretreatment with FEO induce a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability of mouse (B16-F10) and human melanoma (FM94) but not in the normal human epithelial melanocytes (HNEM). Immunoblot analysis showed that FEO induces down regulation of Bcl-2 and up regulation of BAX in B16-F10 cells whereas in FM94 cells FEO induced dose-dependent cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Furthermore, FEO (10 μg/ml) treatment down regulated MCL1 in a time-dependent manner in FM94 cells. In vivo toxicity analysis reveals that weekly single dose of FEO (1200 mg/kg body weight) did not elicit detrimental effect on body weight during four weeks of experimental period. Histology of tissue sections also indicated that there were no observable histopathologic differences in the brain, heart, liver, and kidney compare to control groups. FEO (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) treatments significantly reduced the tumor burden in C57BL/6 mice melanoma model. Acetaminophen (750 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice. Pre treatment with FEO (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) for seven days retained hematology (complete blood count), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALK, total bilirubin, total protein, glucose, albumin/globulin ratio, cholesterol and triglyceride), and the level of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochromeb5, glutathione-S-transferase) which were obstructed by the administration of acetaminophen. Further liver histology showed that FEO treatments reversed the damages (central vein dilation, hemorrhage, and nuclei condensation) caused by acetaminophen. In conclusion, FEO elicited marked anti-melanoma in both in vitro and in vivo with a significant heptoprotection.

KW - Melanoma

KW - Hepatoprotection

KW - Tumor remission

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Essential oil

KW - Frankincense

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 3472

IS - 37

ER -