Foreign Expatriate Service Provision in Portugal's Algarve

Martin Eaton

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Portugal's Algarve is home to a fusion of tourism activities, indigenous populations, inflowing holidaymakers and migrant settlers. This article investigates business development processes amongst 43 foreign expatriate service providers (FESPs) in Alvor and Albufeira. Many of these immigrant entrepreneurs believe that their businesses are functioning satisfactorily, are well established and are providing a range of traditional and niche service activities. Feminization of ownership is important, with several taking advantage of supportive co-preneurial relationships. This enterprising picture is linked to the ontological condition and use of a neutral language economy when discussing customer behaviour. Other key determinants include insular business practices and limited interplay with tourism authorities. Despite recession and competitive strains, it is argued that FESPs are playing significant roles, fostering social integration, providing jobs, and contributing to the resilient socio-economic performance found at these localized scales of analysis.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages75-92
    JournalTourist Studies
    Volume10
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010

    Fingerprint

    Service provision
    Tourism
    Portugal
    Service provider
    Expatriates
    Indigenous population
    Economic performance
    Feminization
    Ownership
    Customer behavior
    Business practices
    Socio-economics
    Business development
    Development process
    Language
    Migrants
    Social integration
    Functioning
    Recession
    Niche

    Keywords

    • Algarve (Portugal)
    • business isolation
    • economic resilience
    • immigrant entrepreneurship
    • ontological condition

    Cite this

    Eaton, Martin. / Foreign Expatriate Service Provision in Portugal's Algarve. 2010 ; Vol. 10, No. 1. pp. 75-92.
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    abstract = "Portugal's Algarve is home to a fusion of tourism activities, indigenous populations, inflowing holidaymakers and migrant settlers. This article investigates business development processes amongst 43 foreign expatriate service providers (FESPs) in Alvor and Albufeira. Many of these immigrant entrepreneurs believe that their businesses are functioning satisfactorily, are well established and are providing a range of traditional and niche service activities. Feminization of ownership is important, with several taking advantage of supportive co-preneurial relationships. This enterprising picture is linked to the ontological condition and use of a neutral language economy when discussing customer behaviour. Other key determinants include insular business practices and limited interplay with tourism authorities. Despite recession and competitive strains, it is argued that FESPs are playing significant roles, fostering social integration, providing jobs, and contributing to the resilient socio-economic performance found at these localized scales of analysis.",
    keywords = "Algarve (Portugal), business isolation, economic resilience, immigrant entrepreneurship, ontological condition",
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    note = "Reference text: Ag{\^e}ncia para o Investimento e Com{\'e}rcio Externo de Portugal, EPE – Portugal Global (2008) Portugal Country Profile, January, MEI, Lisbon. Available from www.icep.pt/CmsAPI/AICEP/index.html Ames, P. (2008) ‘Portugal’s Algarve Region: The End of Europe’, HeraldNet, 24th February. Available from www.heraldnet.com/article/20080224/LIVING05/527669577 Antunes, F. (2000) ‘Algarve: the Tourism Chain and the New Management of the Territory’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12(7): 431–34. Armstrong, K. (2009) ‘Portugal, the Algarve‘ (seventh edition), pp. 178–234 in Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd Victoria. Ateljevic, I. and S. Doorne (2000) ‘Staying Within the Fence: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Tourism’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(5): 378–92. Baganha, M.I., J. Marques and P. G{\'o}is (2004) ‘The Unforeseen Wave: Migration from Eastern Europe to Portugal’, pp. 23–39 in M. Baganha and M.L. Fonseca (eds) New Waves: Migration from Eastern to Southern Europe. Lisbon: Luso-American Foundation. Blake, F. (2003) A Place in the Sun: Dream Homes Within Your Reach. London: Pan Macmillan. Bruin, A. de and K. Lewis (2004) ‘Toward Enriching United Career Theory: Familial Entrepreneurship and Co-preneurship’, Career Development International 9(7): 638-646. Casado-Diaz, M. A. (2006) ‘Retiring to Spain: An Analysis of Differences Among North European Nationals’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32(8): 1321–40. Casciani, D. (2006) ‘5.5m Britons Opt to Live Abroad’, BBC News. Available from http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news621 Correia, A., N. Videira, I. Alves, C. Ramires, R. Subtil, and M. V. Martins (2006) ‘Tourism Golf Scenarios: The Algarve Case’, Tourism and Hospitality Research 6: 179–96. Eaton 91 Economist, The (2007) ‘The Portuguese Economy: a New Sick Man of Europe’, The Economist Newspaper, 12 April. Economist, The (2009) ‘Socratic Method’, The Economist Newspaper, 1 October. Egan, V. and P. Tosanguan (2009) ‘Coping Strategies of Entrepreneurs in Economic Recession: A Comparative Analysis of Thais and European Expatriates in Pattaya, Thailand’, Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability V(3): 17–36. Euromonitor International (2008) Travel and Tourism in Portugal, January. Available from www.euromonitor.com/Travel_and_Tourism_in_Portugal Evans, D. J. J. (2004) Portugal (fifth edition). Wimbledon: Cadogan Guides. Evans, D. J. J. and K. Mohammadi (2000) Portugal: The Algarve (second edition). London: Cadogan Guides. Getz, D. and J. Carlsen (2000) ‘Characteristics and Goals of Family and Owner-Operated Businesses in the Rural Tourism and Hospitality Sectors’, Tourism Management 21(6): 547–60. Huber, A. and K. O’Reilly (2004) ‘The Construction of Heimat Under Conditions of Individualised Modernity: Swiss and British Elderly Migrants in Spain’, Ageing and Society 24: 327–51. Instituto Nacional de Estat{\'i}sticas, I. P. (2008a) Estat{\'i}sticas do Turismo 2007 [Tourism Statistics 2007]. Lisbon: INE. Instituto Nacional de Estat{\'i}sticas, I. P. (2002, 2005, 2007, 2008b) Anu{\'a}rios Estat{\'i}stico da Regi{\~a}o Algarve [Statistical Yearbooks of the Algarve Region]. Lisbon: INE. Ioannides, D. (2006) ‘Commentary: The Economic Geography of the Tourist Industry: Ten Years of Progress in Research and an Agenda for the Future’, Tourism Geographies 8(1): 76–86. Leit{\~a}o, D. G. and J. R. P. Manso (2007) Os Custos Econ{\'o}micos do Desemprego na Beira Interior [Economic Costs of Unemployment in Beira Interior]. Covilh{\~a}: Universidade de Beira Interior. Minist{\'e}rio do Trabalho e da Solidariedade Social (2010) Quadros de Pessoal 2008 [Employment Tables 2008]. Lisboa: MTSS GEP. Observat{\'o}rio do Algarve (2008) ‘Allgarve ‘08 will Cost 2 Million Euros’, Central de Not{\'i}cias do Algarve, 26 May. Available from www.observatoriodoalgarve.com/can/noticias_print.asp?noticia=22440 Oliveira, C. S. and J. Rath (2008) ‘Introduction to Special Issue on Immigrant Entrepreneurship’, Migra{\cc}{\~o}es 3: 11–27. O’Reilly, K. (2003) ‘When is a Tourist? The Articulation of Tourism and Migration in Spain’s Costa del Sol’, Tourist Studies 3(3): 301–17. Palma, P. and D. Antunes (2008) ‘Albufeira {\'e} o Melhor Local Para Viver [Albufeira is the Best Place to Live]’, Sol, 23 February. Available from http://sol.sapo.pt/PaginaInicial/Sociedade/Interior.aspx?content_id=82015 Peixoto, J. (2008) ‘Limits and Opportunities of Immigrant Entrepreneurship’, Migra{\cc}{\~o}es 3: 285–87. Perna, F. and M. J. Cust{\'o}dio (2008) ‘Importance of Events in Tourism: Impacts of the UEFA-EURO 2004TM on the Accommodation Industry in Algarve, Portugal’, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 19(1): 5–22. Pires Soares, N. (2004) ‘Uma Popula{\cc}{\~a}o Que Se Urbaniza [An Urbanizing Population]’, pp. 104–19 in Atlas de Portugal. Lisbon: IGP. Press Association (2004) ‘20 Held After Euro 2004 Riots’, Guardian, 16 June. Available from www.guardian.co.uk/football/2004/jun/16/euro2004.sport19 Servi{\cc}o Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (2008) Popula{\cc}{\~a}o Estrangeira em Territ{\'o}rio Nacional [Foreign Population in Portugal’s National Territory]. Lisbon: SEF. 92 Tourist Studies 10(1) Shaw, G. (2004) ‘Entrepreneurial Cultures and Small Business Enterprises in Tourism’, pp. 122–134 in A. Lew, C. M. Hall and A. M. Williams (eds) A Companion to Tourism. Oxford: Blackwell. Silva, G. and J. Edwards (2003) ‘Tourism-Related Entrepreneurship in Selected Portuguese Rural Areas’. Available from www.iturismo.pt/resources/download/Paper_2003_Gorettirevisto.pdf Sriskandarajah, D. and C. Drew (2006) Brits Abroad: Mapping the Scale and Nature of British Emigration. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Stone, I. and C. Stubbs (2007) ‘Enterprising Expatriates: Lifestyle Migration and Entrepreneurship in Rural Southern Europe’, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 19: 433–50. Syrett, S. (2002) ‘Portugal Transformed’ pp. 1–24 in S. Syrett (ed.) Contemporary Portugal: Dimensions of Economic and Political Change. Aldershot: Ashgate. Tashakkori, A. and C. Teddlie (2003) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Thomson Reuters (2007) ‘Portugal under Fire for Algarve Brand Tweaking’, Reuters, 21 March. Available from www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=USL2019417120070321 Wanhill, S. (2000) ‘Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises’, Annals of Tourism Research 27(1): 132–47. Warnes, A. and A. M Williams, (2006) ‘Older Migrants in Europe: A New Focus for Migration Studies’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32(8): 1257–82. Williams, A. M. (2002) ‘Tourism in Portugal: From Polarisation to New Forms of Economic Integration?’ pp. 83–103 in S. Syrett (ed.) Contemporary Portugal: Dimensions of Economic and Political Change. Aldershot: Ashgate. Yasin, M., J. Alavi, F. Sobral and J. Lisboa (2003) ‘Realities, Threats and Opportunities Facing the Portuguese Tourism Industry’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 15(4): 221–25.",
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    Foreign Expatriate Service Provision in Portugal's Algarve. / Eaton, Martin.

    Vol. 10, No. 1, 04.2010, p. 75-92.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Eaton, Martin

    N1 - Reference text: Agência para o Investimento e Comércio Externo de Portugal, EPE – Portugal Global (2008) Portugal Country Profile, January, MEI, Lisbon. Available from www.icep.pt/CmsAPI/AICEP/index.html Ames, P. (2008) ‘Portugal’s Algarve Region: The End of Europe’, HeraldNet, 24th February. Available from www.heraldnet.com/article/20080224/LIVING05/527669577 Antunes, F. (2000) ‘Algarve: the Tourism Chain and the New Management of the Territory’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12(7): 431–34. Armstrong, K. (2009) ‘Portugal, the Algarve‘ (seventh edition), pp. 178–234 in Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd Victoria. Ateljevic, I. and S. Doorne (2000) ‘Staying Within the Fence: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Tourism’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(5): 378–92. Baganha, M.I., J. Marques and P. Góis (2004) ‘The Unforeseen Wave: Migration from Eastern Europe to Portugal’, pp. 23–39 in M. Baganha and M.L. Fonseca (eds) New Waves: Migration from Eastern to Southern Europe. Lisbon: Luso-American Foundation. Blake, F. (2003) A Place in the Sun: Dream Homes Within Your Reach. London: Pan Macmillan. Bruin, A. de and K. Lewis (2004) ‘Toward Enriching United Career Theory: Familial Entrepreneurship and Co-preneurship’, Career Development International 9(7): 638-646. Casado-Diaz, M. A. (2006) ‘Retiring to Spain: An Analysis of Differences Among North European Nationals’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32(8): 1321–40. Casciani, D. (2006) ‘5.5m Britons Opt to Live Abroad’, BBC News. Available from http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news621 Correia, A., N. Videira, I. Alves, C. Ramires, R. Subtil, and M. V. Martins (2006) ‘Tourism Golf Scenarios: The Algarve Case’, Tourism and Hospitality Research 6: 179–96. Eaton 91 Economist, The (2007) ‘The Portuguese Economy: a New Sick Man of Europe’, The Economist Newspaper, 12 April. Economist, The (2009) ‘Socratic Method’, The Economist Newspaper, 1 October. Egan, V. and P. Tosanguan (2009) ‘Coping Strategies of Entrepreneurs in Economic Recession: A Comparative Analysis of Thais and European Expatriates in Pattaya, Thailand’, Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability V(3): 17–36. Euromonitor International (2008) Travel and Tourism in Portugal, January. Available from www.euromonitor.com/Travel_and_Tourism_in_Portugal Evans, D. J. J. (2004) Portugal (fifth edition). Wimbledon: Cadogan Guides. Evans, D. J. J. and K. Mohammadi (2000) Portugal: The Algarve (second edition). London: Cadogan Guides. Getz, D. and J. Carlsen (2000) ‘Characteristics and Goals of Family and Owner-Operated Businesses in the Rural Tourism and Hospitality Sectors’, Tourism Management 21(6): 547–60. Huber, A. and K. O’Reilly (2004) ‘The Construction of Heimat Under Conditions of Individualised Modernity: Swiss and British Elderly Migrants in Spain’, Ageing and Society 24: 327–51. Instituto Nacional de Estatísticas, I. P. (2008a) Estatísticas do Turismo 2007 [Tourism Statistics 2007]. Lisbon: INE. Instituto Nacional de Estatísticas, I. P. (2002, 2005, 2007, 2008b) Anuários Estatístico da Região Algarve [Statistical Yearbooks of the Algarve Region]. Lisbon: INE. Ioannides, D. (2006) ‘Commentary: The Economic Geography of the Tourist Industry: Ten Years of Progress in Research and an Agenda for the Future’, Tourism Geographies 8(1): 76–86. Leitão, D. G. and J. R. P. Manso (2007) Os Custos Económicos do Desemprego na Beira Interior [Economic Costs of Unemployment in Beira Interior]. Covilhã: Universidade de Beira Interior. Ministério do Trabalho e da Solidariedade Social (2010) Quadros de Pessoal 2008 [Employment Tables 2008]. Lisboa: MTSS GEP. Observatório do Algarve (2008) ‘Allgarve ‘08 will Cost 2 Million Euros’, Central de Notícias do Algarve, 26 May. Available from www.observatoriodoalgarve.com/can/noticias_print.asp?noticia=22440 Oliveira, C. S. and J. Rath (2008) ‘Introduction to Special Issue on Immigrant Entrepreneurship’, Migrações 3: 11–27. O’Reilly, K. (2003) ‘When is a Tourist? The Articulation of Tourism and Migration in Spain’s Costa del Sol’, Tourist Studies 3(3): 301–17. Palma, P. and D. Antunes (2008) ‘Albufeira é o Melhor Local Para Viver [Albufeira is the Best Place to Live]’, Sol, 23 February. Available from http://sol.sapo.pt/PaginaInicial/Sociedade/Interior.aspx?content_id=82015 Peixoto, J. (2008) ‘Limits and Opportunities of Immigrant Entrepreneurship’, Migrações 3: 285–87. Perna, F. and M. J. Custódio (2008) ‘Importance of Events in Tourism: Impacts of the UEFA-EURO 2004TM on the Accommodation Industry in Algarve, Portugal’, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 19(1): 5–22. Pires Soares, N. (2004) ‘Uma População Que Se Urbaniza [An Urbanizing Population]’, pp. 104–19 in Atlas de Portugal. Lisbon: IGP. Press Association (2004) ‘20 Held After Euro 2004 Riots’, Guardian, 16 June. Available from www.guardian.co.uk/football/2004/jun/16/euro2004.sport19 Serviço Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (2008) População Estrangeira em Território Nacional [Foreign Population in Portugal’s National Territory]. Lisbon: SEF. 92 Tourist Studies 10(1) Shaw, G. (2004) ‘Entrepreneurial Cultures and Small Business Enterprises in Tourism’, pp. 122–134 in A. Lew, C. M. Hall and A. M. Williams (eds) A Companion to Tourism. Oxford: Blackwell. Silva, G. and J. Edwards (2003) ‘Tourism-Related Entrepreneurship in Selected Portuguese Rural Areas’. Available from www.iturismo.pt/resources/download/Paper_2003_Gorettirevisto.pdf Sriskandarajah, D. and C. Drew (2006) Brits Abroad: Mapping the Scale and Nature of British Emigration. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Stone, I. and C. Stubbs (2007) ‘Enterprising Expatriates: Lifestyle Migration and Entrepreneurship in Rural Southern Europe’, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 19: 433–50. Syrett, S. (2002) ‘Portugal Transformed’ pp. 1–24 in S. Syrett (ed.) Contemporary Portugal: Dimensions of Economic and Political Change. Aldershot: Ashgate. Tashakkori, A. and C. Teddlie (2003) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Thomson Reuters (2007) ‘Portugal under Fire for Algarve Brand Tweaking’, Reuters, 21 March. Available from www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=USL2019417120070321 Wanhill, S. (2000) ‘Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises’, Annals of Tourism Research 27(1): 132–47. Warnes, A. and A. M Williams, (2006) ‘Older Migrants in Europe: A New Focus for Migration Studies’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32(8): 1257–82. Williams, A. M. (2002) ‘Tourism in Portugal: From Polarisation to New Forms of Economic Integration?’ pp. 83–103 in S. Syrett (ed.) Contemporary Portugal: Dimensions of Economic and Political Change. Aldershot: Ashgate. Yasin, M., J. Alavi, F. Sobral and J. Lisboa (2003) ‘Realities, Threats and Opportunities Facing the Portuguese Tourism Industry’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 15(4): 221–25.

    PY - 2010/4

    Y1 - 2010/4

    N2 - Portugal's Algarve is home to a fusion of tourism activities, indigenous populations, inflowing holidaymakers and migrant settlers. This article investigates business development processes amongst 43 foreign expatriate service providers (FESPs) in Alvor and Albufeira. Many of these immigrant entrepreneurs believe that their businesses are functioning satisfactorily, are well established and are providing a range of traditional and niche service activities. Feminization of ownership is important, with several taking advantage of supportive co-preneurial relationships. This enterprising picture is linked to the ontological condition and use of a neutral language economy when discussing customer behaviour. Other key determinants include insular business practices and limited interplay with tourism authorities. Despite recession and competitive strains, it is argued that FESPs are playing significant roles, fostering social integration, providing jobs, and contributing to the resilient socio-economic performance found at these localized scales of analysis.

    AB - Portugal's Algarve is home to a fusion of tourism activities, indigenous populations, inflowing holidaymakers and migrant settlers. This article investigates business development processes amongst 43 foreign expatriate service providers (FESPs) in Alvor and Albufeira. Many of these immigrant entrepreneurs believe that their businesses are functioning satisfactorily, are well established and are providing a range of traditional and niche service activities. Feminization of ownership is important, with several taking advantage of supportive co-preneurial relationships. This enterprising picture is linked to the ontological condition and use of a neutral language economy when discussing customer behaviour. Other key determinants include insular business practices and limited interplay with tourism authorities. Despite recession and competitive strains, it is argued that FESPs are playing significant roles, fostering social integration, providing jobs, and contributing to the resilient socio-economic performance found at these localized scales of analysis.

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    KW - business isolation

    KW - economic resilience

    KW - immigrant entrepreneurship

    KW - ontological condition

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    DO - 10.1177/1468797610390995

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