Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland

D J Bolton, A Meally, I S Blair, D A McDowell, C Cowan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    73 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Two hundred head chefs and catering managers, responsible for food hygiene in catering establishments, throughout the island of Ireland were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety management and practice. Face to face interviews were used to obtain data on training, food storage and delivery, food handling, personal hygiene and cleaning, food preparation and knowledge of relevant bacterial pathogens. Statistical analysis (SPSS) of the data found that: (1) 20% of kitchen staff had no formal training; (2) formal training did not result in improved food safety practices; (3) 78% of head chefs were unaware of current food safety legislation including theirspecific responsibilities; (4) the concept and application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) was poorly understood; (5) 22.5% of head chefs did not report safe practices in defrosting frozen and (6) common microbial foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella, were familiar to most interviewees, although few could name the source of these bacteria. The results of this study suggest that although most Irish restaurant head chefs/catering managers have a fundamental knowledge of some aspects of food safety and food safety practice, significant gaps remain, posing real risks to consumer health. It is important that head chefs/catering managers and other personnel in key positions to deliver essential standards in consumer food safety, should be supported through additional training and routine inspection to ensure that appropriate knowledge is acquired and effectively applied.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages291-300
    JournalFood Control
    Volume19
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Fingerprint

    Food Safety
    Ireland
    Head
    Hygiene
    Food Legislation
    Food Storage
    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
    Safety Management
    Food
    Restaurants
    Statistical Data Interpretation
    Food Handling
    Islands
    Salmonella
    Names
    Interviews
    Bacteria
    Health

    Keywords

    • Food safety
    • Catering
    • HACCP
    • Salmonella
    • Escherichia coli O157
    • Campylobacter
    • Foodborne illness

    Cite this

    Bolton, D. J., Meally, A., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A., & Cowan, C. (2008). Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland. Food Control, 19, 291-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006
    Bolton, D J ; Meally, A ; Blair, I S ; McDowell, D A ; Cowan, C. / Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland. In: Food Control. 2008 ; Vol. 19. pp. 291-300.
    @article{b5e5ae9428594ce5b7257d1523e673d9,
    title = "Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland",
    abstract = "Two hundred head chefs and catering managers, responsible for food hygiene in catering establishments, throughout the island of Ireland were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety management and practice. Face to face interviews were used to obtain data on training, food storage and delivery, food handling, personal hygiene and cleaning, food preparation and knowledge of relevant bacterial pathogens. Statistical analysis (SPSS) of the data found that: (1) 20{\%} of kitchen staff had no formal training; (2) formal training did not result in improved food safety practices; (3) 78{\%} of head chefs were unaware of current food safety legislation including theirspecific responsibilities; (4) the concept and application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) was poorly understood; (5) 22.5{\%} of head chefs did not report safe practices in defrosting frozen and (6) common microbial foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella, were familiar to most interviewees, although few could name the source of these bacteria. The results of this study suggest that although most Irish restaurant head chefs/catering managers have a fundamental knowledge of some aspects of food safety and food safety practice, significant gaps remain, posing real risks to consumer health. It is important that head chefs/catering managers and other personnel in key positions to deliver essential standards in consumer food safety, should be supported through additional training and routine inspection to ensure that appropriate knowledge is acquired and effectively applied.",
    keywords = "Food safety, Catering, HACCP, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157, Campylobacter, Foodborne illness",
    author = "Bolton, {D J} and A Meally and Blair, {I S} and McDowell, {D A} and C Cowan",
    note = "Reference text: Altekruse, S. F., Yang, S., Timbo, B. B., & Angula, F. J. (1999). A multistate survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practice. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 16, 216–221. Angelillo, I. F., Viggiani, N. M. A., Rizzo, L., & Bianco, A. (2000). Food handlers and foodborne diseases: knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in Italy. Journal of Food Protection, 63, 381–385. Anonymous (1998). Public knowledge and attitudes to food safety in Ireland. Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1: Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Anonymous (2000a). Outbreak surveillance. Food Safety Authority of Ireland Newsletter, 2 (4). Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1: Food Safety Authority of Ireland, p. 4. Anonymous (2000b). The WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe: Seventh Report (1993–1998). World Health Organization. Anonymous (2003). Acute gastroenteritis in Ireland, north and south – a telephone survey. Health Protection Surveillance Centre, 25–27 Middle Gardiner Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. Anonymous (2005). Health Protection Surveillance Centre Annual Report 2004. 25–27 Middle Gardiner Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. Clayton, D. A., & Griffith, C. J. (2004). Observation of food safety practices in catering using notational analysis. British Food Journal, 106(3), 221–227. Coleman, D. A., & Griffith, C. J. (1998). Risk assessment – a diagnostic self assessment tool for caterers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17, 289–301. Coleman, P., Griffith, C. J., & Botterill, D. (2000). Welsh caterers: food safety beliefs and attitudes. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 19, 145–157. FSA (2002). Catering workers hygiene survey, 2002. Food Standards Agency Scotland, St Magnus House, 6th Floor, 25 Guild Street, Aberdeen AB11 6NJ, Scotland. Gillespie, I., Little, C., & Mitchell, R. (2000). Microbiological examination of cold ready-to-eat sliced meats from catering establishments in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 467–474. Griffith, J. (2000). Food safety in catering establishments. In J. M. Farber & E. C. D. Todd (Eds.), Safe handling of foods (pp. 235–256). New York: Marcel Dekker. Griffith, C. J., & Clayton, D. (2005). Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of caterers in the UK. In B. Maunsell & D. J. Bolton (Eds.), Restaurant and catering food safety. Dublin, Ireland: Teagasc. Griffith, J., Mullen, B., & Price, P. E. (1994). Food safety: implications for food medical and behavioural scientists. British Food Journal, 97, 23–28. Harrison, W., Griffith, C. J., Tennant, D., & Peters, A. C. (2001). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry and poultry packaging. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 33, 1–5. Howes, M., McEwen, S., Griffiths, M., & Harris, L. (1996). Food handlers certification by home study: measuring changes in knowledge and behavior. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, 16, 737–744. Jay, S. L., Comar, D., & Govenlock, L. D. (1999). A National Australian Food Safety Telephone Survey. Journal of Food Protection, 62(8), 921–928. Jin, M., Ushioda, H., Arai, T., Kusunoki, K., Ishikami, T., Iwaya, M., et al. (1997). Bacterial contamination of dish cloths and sponge brushes used at various restaurants and meat shops. Annual Report of Tokyo Metropolitan Laboratory of Public Health, 48, 201–205. Kassa, H. (2001). An outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in a frequently penalized food service operation. Journal of Environmental Health, 64, 9–33. Kennedy, J., Jackson, V., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A., Cowan, C., & Bolton, D. J. (2004). Consumer food safety knowledge and the microbiological and temperature status of their refrigerators. Journal of Food Protection, 68(97), 1421–1430. Manning, C. K., & Snider, O. S. (1993). Temporary public eating places: food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Journal of Environmental Health, 56, 24–28. McCabe-Sellers, B. J., & Beattie, S. E. (2004). Food safety: emerging trends in foodborne illness surveillance and prevention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 1708–1717. Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L. F., Bresee, J. S., Shapiro, C., et al. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Disease, 5, 605–625. Mortlock, M. P., Peters, A. C., & Griffith, C. (1999). Food hygiene and HACCP in the UK food industry, practices, perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 786–792. Olsen, S. I., Hansen, G. R., Bartlett, I., Fitzgerald, C., Sonders, A., Manjrekar, R., et al. (2001). An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 183, 164–167. Oteri, T., & Ekanem, E. E. (1989). Food hygiene behavior among hospital food handlers. Public Health, 103, 153–159. Pennington, P. (1997). The Pennington Group: Report on the circumstances leading to the 1996 outbreak of infection with E. coli O157 in Central Scotland, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learned. Edinburgh: The Stationary Office. Redmond, E. C. (2002). Food Safety Behavior in the Home: Development, Application and Evaluation of a social Marketing Food Safety Education Initiative. PhD Thesis, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff. Redmond, E. C., & Griffith, C. J. (2004). Microbiological and observational analysis of cross contamination risks during domestic food preparation. British Food Journal, 106, 581–597. Riben, P. D., Mathias, R. G., Campbel, E., & Wiens, M. (1994). The evaluation of the effectiveness of routine restaurant inspections of food handlers: critical appraisal of the literature. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 85, 556–560. Scott, E. (1996). Foodborne diseases and other hygiene issues in the home. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 80, 5–9. Tarsitani, G., Gadliardi, C., & Persiani, G. (1998). Microbial analysis of health risks in university cafeterias. Igiene-Moderna, 110(10), 3–12. Taylor, E. (1994). Does management training insure a safe supply for the hospitality industry? The Australian Journal of Hospitality Management, 1, 13–15. Tebbutt, G. M. (1984). A microbiological study of various food premises with an assessment of cleaning and disinfection practices. Journal of Hygiene, 92, 365–375. Thompson, S., de Burger, R., & Kadri, O. (2005). The Toronto food inspection and disclosure system: a case study. British Food Journal, 107, 140–149. Tirado, C., & Schmidt, K. (2001). WHO surveillance programme for control of foodborne infections and intoxications: preliminary results and trends across greater Europe. World Health Organisation. Journal of Infection, 43, 80–84. Walker, E., Pritchard, C., & Forsythe, S. (2003). Food handlers hygiene knowledge in small businesses. Food Control, 14, 339–343. Walter, A., Cohen, N. I., & Swicker, R. C. (1997). Food safety training needs exist for staff and consumers in a variety of community based homes for people with development disabilities. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 619–625. Worsfold, D. (1993). Food safety: an appraisal of a training program. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 113, 316–319",
    year = "2008",
    doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006",
    language = "English",
    volume = "19",
    pages = "291--300",
    journal = "Food Control",
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    }

    Bolton, DJ, Meally, A, Blair, IS, McDowell, DA & Cowan, C 2008, 'Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland', Food Control, vol. 19, pp. 291-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006

    Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland. / Bolton, D J; Meally, A; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Cowan, C.

    In: Food Control, Vol. 19, 2008, p. 291-300.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland

    AU - Bolton, D J

    AU - Meally, A

    AU - Blair, I S

    AU - McDowell, D A

    AU - Cowan, C

    N1 - Reference text: Altekruse, S. F., Yang, S., Timbo, B. B., & Angula, F. J. (1999). A multistate survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practice. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 16, 216–221. Angelillo, I. F., Viggiani, N. M. A., Rizzo, L., & Bianco, A. (2000). Food handlers and foodborne diseases: knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in Italy. Journal of Food Protection, 63, 381–385. Anonymous (1998). Public knowledge and attitudes to food safety in Ireland. Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1: Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Anonymous (2000a). Outbreak surveillance. Food Safety Authority of Ireland Newsletter, 2 (4). Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1: Food Safety Authority of Ireland, p. 4. Anonymous (2000b). The WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe: Seventh Report (1993–1998). World Health Organization. Anonymous (2003). Acute gastroenteritis in Ireland, north and south – a telephone survey. Health Protection Surveillance Centre, 25–27 Middle Gardiner Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. Anonymous (2005). Health Protection Surveillance Centre Annual Report 2004. 25–27 Middle Gardiner Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. Clayton, D. A., & Griffith, C. J. (2004). Observation of food safety practices in catering using notational analysis. British Food Journal, 106(3), 221–227. Coleman, D. A., & Griffith, C. J. (1998). Risk assessment – a diagnostic self assessment tool for caterers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17, 289–301. Coleman, P., Griffith, C. J., & Botterill, D. (2000). Welsh caterers: food safety beliefs and attitudes. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 19, 145–157. FSA (2002). Catering workers hygiene survey, 2002. Food Standards Agency Scotland, St Magnus House, 6th Floor, 25 Guild Street, Aberdeen AB11 6NJ, Scotland. Gillespie, I., Little, C., & Mitchell, R. (2000). Microbiological examination of cold ready-to-eat sliced meats from catering establishments in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 467–474. Griffith, J. (2000). Food safety in catering establishments. In J. M. Farber & E. C. D. Todd (Eds.), Safe handling of foods (pp. 235–256). New York: Marcel Dekker. Griffith, C. J., & Clayton, D. (2005). Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of caterers in the UK. In B. Maunsell & D. J. Bolton (Eds.), Restaurant and catering food safety. Dublin, Ireland: Teagasc. Griffith, J., Mullen, B., & Price, P. E. (1994). Food safety: implications for food medical and behavioural scientists. British Food Journal, 97, 23–28. Harrison, W., Griffith, C. J., Tennant, D., & Peters, A. C. (2001). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry and poultry packaging. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 33, 1–5. Howes, M., McEwen, S., Griffiths, M., & Harris, L. (1996). Food handlers certification by home study: measuring changes in knowledge and behavior. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, 16, 737–744. Jay, S. L., Comar, D., & Govenlock, L. D. (1999). A National Australian Food Safety Telephone Survey. Journal of Food Protection, 62(8), 921–928. Jin, M., Ushioda, H., Arai, T., Kusunoki, K., Ishikami, T., Iwaya, M., et al. (1997). Bacterial contamination of dish cloths and sponge brushes used at various restaurants and meat shops. Annual Report of Tokyo Metropolitan Laboratory of Public Health, 48, 201–205. Kassa, H. (2001). An outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in a frequently penalized food service operation. Journal of Environmental Health, 64, 9–33. Kennedy, J., Jackson, V., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A., Cowan, C., & Bolton, D. J. (2004). Consumer food safety knowledge and the microbiological and temperature status of their refrigerators. Journal of Food Protection, 68(97), 1421–1430. Manning, C. K., & Snider, O. S. (1993). Temporary public eating places: food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Journal of Environmental Health, 56, 24–28. McCabe-Sellers, B. J., & Beattie, S. E. (2004). Food safety: emerging trends in foodborne illness surveillance and prevention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 1708–1717. Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L. F., Bresee, J. S., Shapiro, C., et al. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Disease, 5, 605–625. Mortlock, M. P., Peters, A. C., & Griffith, C. (1999). Food hygiene and HACCP in the UK food industry, practices, perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 786–792. Olsen, S. I., Hansen, G. R., Bartlett, I., Fitzgerald, C., Sonders, A., Manjrekar, R., et al. (2001). An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 183, 164–167. Oteri, T., & Ekanem, E. E. (1989). Food hygiene behavior among hospital food handlers. Public Health, 103, 153–159. Pennington, P. (1997). The Pennington Group: Report on the circumstances leading to the 1996 outbreak of infection with E. coli O157 in Central Scotland, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learned. Edinburgh: The Stationary Office. Redmond, E. C. (2002). Food Safety Behavior in the Home: Development, Application and Evaluation of a social Marketing Food Safety Education Initiative. PhD Thesis, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff. Redmond, E. C., & Griffith, C. J. (2004). Microbiological and observational analysis of cross contamination risks during domestic food preparation. British Food Journal, 106, 581–597. Riben, P. D., Mathias, R. G., Campbel, E., & Wiens, M. (1994). The evaluation of the effectiveness of routine restaurant inspections of food handlers: critical appraisal of the literature. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 85, 556–560. Scott, E. (1996). Foodborne diseases and other hygiene issues in the home. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 80, 5–9. Tarsitani, G., Gadliardi, C., & Persiani, G. (1998). Microbial analysis of health risks in university cafeterias. Igiene-Moderna, 110(10), 3–12. Taylor, E. (1994). Does management training insure a safe supply for the hospitality industry? The Australian Journal of Hospitality Management, 1, 13–15. Tebbutt, G. M. (1984). A microbiological study of various food premises with an assessment of cleaning and disinfection practices. Journal of Hygiene, 92, 365–375. Thompson, S., de Burger, R., & Kadri, O. (2005). The Toronto food inspection and disclosure system: a case study. British Food Journal, 107, 140–149. Tirado, C., & Schmidt, K. (2001). WHO surveillance programme for control of foodborne infections and intoxications: preliminary results and trends across greater Europe. World Health Organisation. Journal of Infection, 43, 80–84. Walker, E., Pritchard, C., & Forsythe, S. (2003). Food handlers hygiene knowledge in small businesses. Food Control, 14, 339–343. Walter, A., Cohen, N. I., & Swicker, R. C. (1997). Food safety training needs exist for staff and consumers in a variety of community based homes for people with development disabilities. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 619–625. Worsfold, D. (1993). Food safety: an appraisal of a training program. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 113, 316–319

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - Two hundred head chefs and catering managers, responsible for food hygiene in catering establishments, throughout the island of Ireland were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety management and practice. Face to face interviews were used to obtain data on training, food storage and delivery, food handling, personal hygiene and cleaning, food preparation and knowledge of relevant bacterial pathogens. Statistical analysis (SPSS) of the data found that: (1) 20% of kitchen staff had no formal training; (2) formal training did not result in improved food safety practices; (3) 78% of head chefs were unaware of current food safety legislation including theirspecific responsibilities; (4) the concept and application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) was poorly understood; (5) 22.5% of head chefs did not report safe practices in defrosting frozen and (6) common microbial foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella, were familiar to most interviewees, although few could name the source of these bacteria. The results of this study suggest that although most Irish restaurant head chefs/catering managers have a fundamental knowledge of some aspects of food safety and food safety practice, significant gaps remain, posing real risks to consumer health. It is important that head chefs/catering managers and other personnel in key positions to deliver essential standards in consumer food safety, should be supported through additional training and routine inspection to ensure that appropriate knowledge is acquired and effectively applied.

    AB - Two hundred head chefs and catering managers, responsible for food hygiene in catering establishments, throughout the island of Ireland were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety management and practice. Face to face interviews were used to obtain data on training, food storage and delivery, food handling, personal hygiene and cleaning, food preparation and knowledge of relevant bacterial pathogens. Statistical analysis (SPSS) of the data found that: (1) 20% of kitchen staff had no formal training; (2) formal training did not result in improved food safety practices; (3) 78% of head chefs were unaware of current food safety legislation including theirspecific responsibilities; (4) the concept and application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) was poorly understood; (5) 22.5% of head chefs did not report safe practices in defrosting frozen and (6) common microbial foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella, were familiar to most interviewees, although few could name the source of these bacteria. The results of this study suggest that although most Irish restaurant head chefs/catering managers have a fundamental knowledge of some aspects of food safety and food safety practice, significant gaps remain, posing real risks to consumer health. It is important that head chefs/catering managers and other personnel in key positions to deliver essential standards in consumer food safety, should be supported through additional training and routine inspection to ensure that appropriate knowledge is acquired and effectively applied.

    KW - Food safety

    KW - Catering

    KW - HACCP

    KW - Salmonella

    KW - Escherichia coli O157

    KW - Campylobacter

    KW - Foodborne illness

    U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006

    DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006

    M3 - Article

    VL - 19

    SP - 291

    EP - 300

    JO - Food Control

    T2 - Food Control

    JF - Food Control

    SN - 0956-7135

    ER -