Smoke contamination even from small fires of sensitive components in telephone central offices (TCO) and semiconductor clean rooms has caused disastrous disruptions in services and excessive financial repercussions. Containment and removal of smoke can be achieved by downward displacement ventilation, also used for other purposes in large floor area semiconductor facilities. Downward ventilation reverses the upward flow from the fire and removes the smoke and other combustion products through the floor. Small-scale model experiments under turbulent fire plume conditions investigate the physical parameters such as downward velocity, ceiling clearance, and size of the fire that control the extent of the smoke containment around the fire. The extent of smoke contamination is mapped by measuring the temperatures in several locations on the vertical axis and in the space around the fire. The downward velocities cause oscillation of the fire plume and the flames around the vertical axis. By combining the experimental data with similarity analysis, a characteristic length scale and non-dimensional relations are deduced for the extent of the smoke containment and the onset of plume oscillations. These relations allow design of displacement ventilation effective to contain the smoke but not cause fire spread owing to the leaning of the flames. Previously reported discrepancies in the apparent width and behavior of the plume are resolved by examining the experimental data and assessing the suitability of steady state computational fluid dynamics to model the present flow. (c) 2007 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Combustion and Flame|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2007|