Fitness, fatness, and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project

C Boreham, J Twisk, L Murray, M Savage, JJ Strain, G Cran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

100 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the independence and relative strengths of association between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk status and both body fatness and cardiorespiratory (C-R) fitness in 12- and 15-yr-old adolescents, Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 yr (251 12-yr-old boys, 258 17-yr-old girls, 252 15-yr-old boys, and 251 15-yr-old girls), representing a 2% random sample of each population group. For each child, height, weight, sexual maturity (pubertal status), skin-fold thicknesses (4 sites), blood pressure (random zero sphygmomanometer), nonfasting serum total, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and C-R fitness (20-m shuttle run; 20-MST) were determined under standardized conditions. Socioeconomic status and habitual physical activity were also determined from questionnaire information. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine relationships between five CHD risk factors, and fitness and fatness and to examine the relative strengths of fitness and fatness on CHD risk status, correcting for potential confounding variables. Results: Our main findings were: 1) Relationships between fatness and CHD risk factors are invariably stronger than between fitness and the same risk factors. For example, partially adjusted standardized regression coefficients for 12-yr-old boys revealed significant relationships between all five CHD risk factors and fatness. compared with three of five for fitness. The corresponding figures for 12-yr-old girls were three of five (fatness) and one of five (fitness). Broadly similar results were apparent for 15-yr-olds. 2) Although relationships between fitness and CHD risk factors do not survive further adjustment for fatness, the relationships between fatness and CHD risk are more robust and are unaffected by further adjustment fur fitness. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the observed relationships between C-R fitness and CHD risk status in adolescents are mediated by fatness, whereas the observed relationships with fatness are independent of fitness. Primary prevention of CHD during childhood should therefore concentrate upon preventing or reversing undue weight gain.
LanguageEnglish
Pages270-274
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume33
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2001

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Northern Ireland
Coronary Disease
Sphygmomanometers
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Primary Prevention
Population Groups
Social Class
HDL Cholesterol
Weight Gain
Cohort Studies
Regression Analysis
Exercise
Blood Pressure
Weights and Measures
Skin

Cite this

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title = "Fitness, fatness, and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project",
abstract = "Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the independence and relative strengths of association between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk status and both body fatness and cardiorespiratory (C-R) fitness in 12- and 15-yr-old adolescents, Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 yr (251 12-yr-old boys, 258 17-yr-old girls, 252 15-yr-old boys, and 251 15-yr-old girls), representing a 2{\%} random sample of each population group. For each child, height, weight, sexual maturity (pubertal status), skin-fold thicknesses (4 sites), blood pressure (random zero sphygmomanometer), nonfasting serum total, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and C-R fitness (20-m shuttle run; 20-MST) were determined under standardized conditions. Socioeconomic status and habitual physical activity were also determined from questionnaire information. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine relationships between five CHD risk factors, and fitness and fatness and to examine the relative strengths of fitness and fatness on CHD risk status, correcting for potential confounding variables. Results: Our main findings were: 1) Relationships between fatness and CHD risk factors are invariably stronger than between fitness and the same risk factors. For example, partially adjusted standardized regression coefficients for 12-yr-old boys revealed significant relationships between all five CHD risk factors and fatness. compared with three of five for fitness. The corresponding figures for 12-yr-old girls were three of five (fatness) and one of five (fitness). Broadly similar results were apparent for 15-yr-olds. 2) Although relationships between fitness and CHD risk factors do not survive further adjustment for fatness, the relationships between fatness and CHD risk are more robust and are unaffected by further adjustment fur fitness. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the observed relationships between C-R fitness and CHD risk status in adolescents are mediated by fatness, whereas the observed relationships with fatness are independent of fitness. Primary prevention of CHD during childhood should therefore concentrate upon preventing or reversing undue weight gain.",
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Fitness, fatness, and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. / Boreham, C; Twisk, J; Murray, L; Savage, M; Strain, JJ; Cran, G.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 33, No. 2, 02.2001, p. 270-274.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fitness, fatness, and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project

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AU - Twisk, J

AU - Murray, L

AU - Savage, M

AU - Strain, JJ

AU - Cran, G

PY - 2001/2

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N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the independence and relative strengths of association between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk status and both body fatness and cardiorespiratory (C-R) fitness in 12- and 15-yr-old adolescents, Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 yr (251 12-yr-old boys, 258 17-yr-old girls, 252 15-yr-old boys, and 251 15-yr-old girls), representing a 2% random sample of each population group. For each child, height, weight, sexual maturity (pubertal status), skin-fold thicknesses (4 sites), blood pressure (random zero sphygmomanometer), nonfasting serum total, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and C-R fitness (20-m shuttle run; 20-MST) were determined under standardized conditions. Socioeconomic status and habitual physical activity were also determined from questionnaire information. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine relationships between five CHD risk factors, and fitness and fatness and to examine the relative strengths of fitness and fatness on CHD risk status, correcting for potential confounding variables. Results: Our main findings were: 1) Relationships between fatness and CHD risk factors are invariably stronger than between fitness and the same risk factors. For example, partially adjusted standardized regression coefficients for 12-yr-old boys revealed significant relationships between all five CHD risk factors and fatness. compared with three of five for fitness. The corresponding figures for 12-yr-old girls were three of five (fatness) and one of five (fitness). Broadly similar results were apparent for 15-yr-olds. 2) Although relationships between fitness and CHD risk factors do not survive further adjustment for fatness, the relationships between fatness and CHD risk are more robust and are unaffected by further adjustment fur fitness. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the observed relationships between C-R fitness and CHD risk status in adolescents are mediated by fatness, whereas the observed relationships with fatness are independent of fitness. Primary prevention of CHD during childhood should therefore concentrate upon preventing or reversing undue weight gain.

AB - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the independence and relative strengths of association between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk status and both body fatness and cardiorespiratory (C-R) fitness in 12- and 15-yr-old adolescents, Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 yr (251 12-yr-old boys, 258 17-yr-old girls, 252 15-yr-old boys, and 251 15-yr-old girls), representing a 2% random sample of each population group. For each child, height, weight, sexual maturity (pubertal status), skin-fold thicknesses (4 sites), blood pressure (random zero sphygmomanometer), nonfasting serum total, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and C-R fitness (20-m shuttle run; 20-MST) were determined under standardized conditions. Socioeconomic status and habitual physical activity were also determined from questionnaire information. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine relationships between five CHD risk factors, and fitness and fatness and to examine the relative strengths of fitness and fatness on CHD risk status, correcting for potential confounding variables. Results: Our main findings were: 1) Relationships between fatness and CHD risk factors are invariably stronger than between fitness and the same risk factors. For example, partially adjusted standardized regression coefficients for 12-yr-old boys revealed significant relationships between all five CHD risk factors and fatness. compared with three of five for fitness. The corresponding figures for 12-yr-old girls were three of five (fatness) and one of five (fitness). Broadly similar results were apparent for 15-yr-olds. 2) Although relationships between fitness and CHD risk factors do not survive further adjustment for fatness, the relationships between fatness and CHD risk are more robust and are unaffected by further adjustment fur fitness. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the observed relationships between C-R fitness and CHD risk status in adolescents are mediated by fatness, whereas the observed relationships with fatness are independent of fitness. Primary prevention of CHD during childhood should therefore concentrate upon preventing or reversing undue weight gain.

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JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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SN - 0195-9131

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