Fire safety aspects of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards: An experimental and numerical investigation

Eleni Asimakopoulou, Dionysios Kolaitis, Maria Founti

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    New trends in building energy efficiency include thermal storage in building elements that can be achieved via the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCM). Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with micro-encapsulated paraffin-based PCM have recently become commercially available. This work aims to shed light on the fire safety aspects of using such innovative building materials, by means of an extensive experimental and numerical simulation study. The main thermo-physical properties and the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of methods (i.e. thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, cone calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy). It is demonstrated that in the high temperature environment developing during a fire, the PCM paraffins evaporate and escape through the failed encapsulation shells and the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerging in the fire region, where they ignite increasing the effective fire load. The experimental data are used to develop a numerical model that accurately describes the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards. The model is implemented in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and is validated against cone calorimeter test results. CFD simulations are used to demonstrate that the use of paraffin-based PCM-enhanced construction materials may, in case the micro-encapsulation shells fail, adversely affect the fire safety characteristics of a building.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages50-58
    JournalFire Safety Journal
    Volume72
    Early online date11 Feb 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

    Fingerprint

    Calcium Sulfate
    gypsum
    phase change materials
    Phase change materials
    Gypsum
    safety
    Fires
    paraffins
    Paraffin
    Paraffins
    computational fluid dynamics
    calorimeters
    Calorimeters
    cones
    Cones
    Computational fluid dynamics
    high temperature environments
    thermodynamic efficiency
    Microencapsulation
    thermophysical properties

    Keywords

    • Gypsum plasterboard
    • Phase change material
    • PCM
    • Fire
    • Fire safety
    • CFD
    • TGA
    • DSC
    • Cone calorimeter
    • SEM

    Cite this

    @article{59519f7c89c84823958b129a52c9d472,
    title = "Fire safety aspects of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards: An experimental and numerical investigation",
    abstract = "New trends in building energy efficiency include thermal storage in building elements that can be achieved via the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCM). Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with micro-encapsulated paraffin-based PCM have recently become commercially available. This work aims to shed light on the fire safety aspects of using such innovative building materials, by means of an extensive experimental and numerical simulation study. The main thermo-physical properties and the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of methods (i.e. thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, cone calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy). It is demonstrated that in the high temperature environment developing during a fire, the PCM paraffins evaporate and escape through the failed encapsulation shells and the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerging in the fire region, where they ignite increasing the effective fire load. The experimental data are used to develop a numerical model that accurately describes the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards. The model is implemented in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and is validated against cone calorimeter test results. CFD simulations are used to demonstrate that the use of paraffin-based PCM-enhanced construction materials may, in case the micro-encapsulation shells fail, adversely affect the fire safety characteristics of a building.",
    keywords = "Gypsum plasterboard, Phase change material, PCM, Fire, Fire safety, CFD, TGA, DSC, Cone calorimeter, SEM",
    author = "Eleni Asimakopoulou and Dionysios Kolaitis and Maria Founti",
    note = "Reference text: [1] L.F. Cabeza, A. Castell, C. Barreneche, A. de Gracia, A.I. Fernandez, Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 (2011) 1675–1695. [2] D. Zhou, C.Y. Zhao, Y. Tina, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) in building applications, Appl. Energy 92 (2012) 593–605. [3] F. Agyenim, N. Hewitt, P. Eames, M. Smyth, A review of materials, heat transfer and phase change problem formulation for latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTESS), Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (2010) 615–628. [4] C. Voelker, O. Kornadt, M. Ostry, Temperature reduction due to the application of phase change materials, Energ. Build. 40 (2008) 937–944. [5] N. Soares, J.J. Costa, A.R. Gaspar, P. Santos, Review of passive PCM latent heat thermal energy storage systems towards buildings’ energy efficiency, Energy Build. 59 (2013) 82–103. [6] N. Shulka, A. Fallahi, J. Kosny, Performance characterization of PCM impregnated gypsum board for building applications, Energy Procedia 30 (2012) 370–379. [7] D. Banu, D. Feldman, F. Haghighat, J. Paris, D. Hawes, Energy-storing wallboard: flammability tests, J. Mater. Civil Eng. 10 (1998) 98–105. [8] C.Y. Wang, C.N. Ang, Effect of moisture transfer on specific heat of gypsum plasterboard at high temperatures, Constr. Build. Mater. 16 (2004) 505–515. [9] D.A. Kontogeorgos, M.A. Founti, Numerical investigation of simultaneous heat and mass transfer mechanisms occurring in a gypsumboard exposed to fire, Appl. Therm. Eng. 30 (2010) 1461–1469. [10] D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Development of a solid reaction kinetics gypsum dehydration model appropriate for CFD simulation of gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies exposed to fire, Fire Saf. J. 58 (2013) 151–159. [11] V.V. Tyagi, S.C. Kaushik, S.K. Tyagi, T. Akiyama, Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain Energy Rev. 15 (2011) 1373–1391. [12] A. Sharma, V.V. Tyagi, C.R. Chen, D. Buddhi, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13 (2009) 318–345. [13] P. Sittisart, M.M. Farid, Fire retardants for phase change materials, Appl. Energy 88 (2011) 3140–3145. [14] Y. Cai, Y. Hu, L. Song, Y. Tang, R. Yang, Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, W. Fan, Flammability and thermal properties of high density polyethylene/paraffin hybrid as a formstable phase change material, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 99 (2006) 1320–1327. [15] M. Hunger, A.G. Entrop, I. Mandilaras, H.J.H. Brouwers, M.A. Founti, The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials, Cement Concrete Compos. 3 (2009) 731–743. [16] M.N.A. Hawlader, M.S. Uddin, M.M. Khin, Microencapsulated PCM thermalenergy storage system, Appl. Energy 74 (2003) 195–202. [17] W.D. Walton, P.H. Thomas, Estimating temperatures in compartment fires, in: P.J. DiNenno (Ed.), SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 1995. [18] L. Sanchez-Silva, J.F. Rodriguez, A. Romero, A.M. Borreguero, M. Carmona, P. Sanchez, Microencapsulation of PCMs with a styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymer shell by suspension-like polymerisation, Chem. Eng. J. 157 (2010) 216–222. [19] H. Willax, B. Katz, M.R. Jung, S. Altmann, E. Jahns. Gypsum wall board containing micro-encapsulated latent heat accumulator materials, Patent Number 20120196116, 2 August 2012. [20] W.W. Wendlandt, Thermal Analysis, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1986. [21] B.M.E. Brown, Introduction to Thermal Analysis: Techniques and Applications, 2nd ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001. [22] B. Wundelich, Thermal Analysis, Academic Press Inc., UK, 1990. [23] C.L. Yaws, Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds, Knovel, New York, 2003. [24] ISO 5660-1:1993, Fire tests-Reaction to Fire Heat Release – Part 1: Rate of Heat Release from Building Products (cone calorimeter method), International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. [25] B. Schartel, T.R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials: interpretation of cone calorimeter data, Fire Mater. 31 (2007) 327–354. [26] L. Zhao, N.A. Dembsey, Measurement uncertainty analysis for calorimetry apparatuses, Fire Mater. 32 (1) (2008) 1–26. [27] J.R. McGraw, F.W. Mowrer, Flammability and dehydration of painted gypsum wallboard subjected to fire heat fluxes, Fire Saf. Sci. 6 (2000) 1003–1014. [28] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, K. Overholt, Fire Dynamics Simulator User's Guide, 6th ed., NIST Special Publication 1019, 2013. [29] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, K. Overholt, Fire Dynamics Simulator Technical Reference Guide, 6th ed., NIST Special Publication 1018, 2013. [30] R.K.K. Yuen, G.H. Yeoh, G. Vahl Davis, E. Leonardi, Modelling the pyrolysis of wet wood – II. Three-dimensional cone calorimeter simulation, Heat Mass Transf. 50 (2009) 4387–4399. [31] S. Vyazovkin, A.K. Burnham, J.M. Criado, L.A. Perez-Maqueda, C. Popescu, N. Sbirrazuoli, ICTAC Kinetics Committee recommendations for performing kinetic computations on thermal analysis data, Thermochim. Acta 520 (2011) 1–19. [32] V. Novozhilov, B. Moghtaderi, D.F. Fletcher, J.H. Kent, Computational fluid dynamics modelling of wood combustion, Fire Saf. J. 36 (1996) 69–84. [33] F. Kempel, B. Schartel, G.T. Linteris, S.I. Stoliarov, R.E. Lyon, R.N. Waltes, A. Hofman, Prediction of the mass loss rate of polymer materials: Impact of residue formation, Combust. Flame 159 (2012) 2974–2984. [34] D.M. Marquis, M. Pavageau, E. Guillaume, C. Chivas-Joly, Modelling decomposition and fire behaviour of small samples of a glass-reinforced polyester/ balsa-cored sandwich material, Fire Mater. 37 (2012) 413–439. [35] Y.M. Ferng, C.H. Liu, Investigation of the burning characteristics of electric cables used in the nuclear power plant by way of 3-D transient FDS code, Nucl. Eng. Des. 241 (2011) 88–94.",
    year = "2015",
    month = "2",
    doi = "10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.02.004",
    language = "English",
    volume = "72",
    pages = "50--58",
    journal = "Fire Safety Journal",
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    }

    Fire safety aspects of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards: An experimental and numerical investigation. / Asimakopoulou, Eleni; Kolaitis, Dionysios; Founti, Maria.

    In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 72, 02.2015, p. 50-58.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Fire safety aspects of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards: An experimental and numerical investigation

    AU - Asimakopoulou, Eleni

    AU - Kolaitis, Dionysios

    AU - Founti, Maria

    N1 - Reference text: [1] L.F. Cabeza, A. Castell, C. Barreneche, A. de Gracia, A.I. Fernandez, Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 (2011) 1675–1695. [2] D. Zhou, C.Y. Zhao, Y. Tina, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) in building applications, Appl. Energy 92 (2012) 593–605. [3] F. Agyenim, N. Hewitt, P. Eames, M. Smyth, A review of materials, heat transfer and phase change problem formulation for latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTESS), Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (2010) 615–628. [4] C. Voelker, O. Kornadt, M. Ostry, Temperature reduction due to the application of phase change materials, Energ. Build. 40 (2008) 937–944. [5] N. Soares, J.J. Costa, A.R. Gaspar, P. Santos, Review of passive PCM latent heat thermal energy storage systems towards buildings’ energy efficiency, Energy Build. 59 (2013) 82–103. [6] N. Shulka, A. Fallahi, J. Kosny, Performance characterization of PCM impregnated gypsum board for building applications, Energy Procedia 30 (2012) 370–379. [7] D. Banu, D. Feldman, F. Haghighat, J. Paris, D. Hawes, Energy-storing wallboard: flammability tests, J. Mater. Civil Eng. 10 (1998) 98–105. [8] C.Y. Wang, C.N. Ang, Effect of moisture transfer on specific heat of gypsum plasterboard at high temperatures, Constr. Build. Mater. 16 (2004) 505–515. [9] D.A. Kontogeorgos, M.A. Founti, Numerical investigation of simultaneous heat and mass transfer mechanisms occurring in a gypsumboard exposed to fire, Appl. Therm. Eng. 30 (2010) 1461–1469. [10] D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Development of a solid reaction kinetics gypsum dehydration model appropriate for CFD simulation of gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies exposed to fire, Fire Saf. J. 58 (2013) 151–159. [11] V.V. Tyagi, S.C. Kaushik, S.K. Tyagi, T. Akiyama, Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain Energy Rev. 15 (2011) 1373–1391. [12] A. Sharma, V.V. Tyagi, C.R. Chen, D. Buddhi, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13 (2009) 318–345. [13] P. Sittisart, M.M. Farid, Fire retardants for phase change materials, Appl. Energy 88 (2011) 3140–3145. [14] Y. Cai, Y. Hu, L. Song, Y. Tang, R. Yang, Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, W. Fan, Flammability and thermal properties of high density polyethylene/paraffin hybrid as a formstable phase change material, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 99 (2006) 1320–1327. [15] M. Hunger, A.G. Entrop, I. Mandilaras, H.J.H. Brouwers, M.A. Founti, The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials, Cement Concrete Compos. 3 (2009) 731–743. [16] M.N.A. Hawlader, M.S. Uddin, M.M. Khin, Microencapsulated PCM thermalenergy storage system, Appl. Energy 74 (2003) 195–202. [17] W.D. Walton, P.H. Thomas, Estimating temperatures in compartment fires, in: P.J. DiNenno (Ed.), SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 1995. [18] L. Sanchez-Silva, J.F. Rodriguez, A. Romero, A.M. Borreguero, M. Carmona, P. Sanchez, Microencapsulation of PCMs with a styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymer shell by suspension-like polymerisation, Chem. Eng. J. 157 (2010) 216–222. [19] H. Willax, B. Katz, M.R. Jung, S. Altmann, E. Jahns. Gypsum wall board containing micro-encapsulated latent heat accumulator materials, Patent Number 20120196116, 2 August 2012. [20] W.W. Wendlandt, Thermal Analysis, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1986. [21] B.M.E. Brown, Introduction to Thermal Analysis: Techniques and Applications, 2nd ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001. [22] B. Wundelich, Thermal Analysis, Academic Press Inc., UK, 1990. [23] C.L. Yaws, Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds, Knovel, New York, 2003. [24] ISO 5660-1:1993, Fire tests-Reaction to Fire Heat Release – Part 1: Rate of Heat Release from Building Products (cone calorimeter method), International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. [25] B. Schartel, T.R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials: interpretation of cone calorimeter data, Fire Mater. 31 (2007) 327–354. [26] L. Zhao, N.A. Dembsey, Measurement uncertainty analysis for calorimetry apparatuses, Fire Mater. 32 (1) (2008) 1–26. [27] J.R. McGraw, F.W. Mowrer, Flammability and dehydration of painted gypsum wallboard subjected to fire heat fluxes, Fire Saf. Sci. 6 (2000) 1003–1014. [28] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, K. Overholt, Fire Dynamics Simulator User's Guide, 6th ed., NIST Special Publication 1019, 2013. [29] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, K. Overholt, Fire Dynamics Simulator Technical Reference Guide, 6th ed., NIST Special Publication 1018, 2013. [30] R.K.K. Yuen, G.H. Yeoh, G. Vahl Davis, E. Leonardi, Modelling the pyrolysis of wet wood – II. Three-dimensional cone calorimeter simulation, Heat Mass Transf. 50 (2009) 4387–4399. [31] S. Vyazovkin, A.K. Burnham, J.M. Criado, L.A. Perez-Maqueda, C. Popescu, N. Sbirrazuoli, ICTAC Kinetics Committee recommendations for performing kinetic computations on thermal analysis data, Thermochim. Acta 520 (2011) 1–19. [32] V. Novozhilov, B. Moghtaderi, D.F. Fletcher, J.H. Kent, Computational fluid dynamics modelling of wood combustion, Fire Saf. J. 36 (1996) 69–84. [33] F. Kempel, B. Schartel, G.T. Linteris, S.I. Stoliarov, R.E. Lyon, R.N. Waltes, A. Hofman, Prediction of the mass loss rate of polymer materials: Impact of residue formation, Combust. Flame 159 (2012) 2974–2984. [34] D.M. Marquis, M. Pavageau, E. Guillaume, C. Chivas-Joly, Modelling decomposition and fire behaviour of small samples of a glass-reinforced polyester/ balsa-cored sandwich material, Fire Mater. 37 (2012) 413–439. [35] Y.M. Ferng, C.H. Liu, Investigation of the burning characteristics of electric cables used in the nuclear power plant by way of 3-D transient FDS code, Nucl. Eng. Des. 241 (2011) 88–94.

    PY - 2015/2

    Y1 - 2015/2

    N2 - New trends in building energy efficiency include thermal storage in building elements that can be achieved via the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCM). Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with micro-encapsulated paraffin-based PCM have recently become commercially available. This work aims to shed light on the fire safety aspects of using such innovative building materials, by means of an extensive experimental and numerical simulation study. The main thermo-physical properties and the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of methods (i.e. thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, cone calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy). It is demonstrated that in the high temperature environment developing during a fire, the PCM paraffins evaporate and escape through the failed encapsulation shells and the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerging in the fire region, where they ignite increasing the effective fire load. The experimental data are used to develop a numerical model that accurately describes the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards. The model is implemented in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and is validated against cone calorimeter test results. CFD simulations are used to demonstrate that the use of paraffin-based PCM-enhanced construction materials may, in case the micro-encapsulation shells fail, adversely affect the fire safety characteristics of a building.

    AB - New trends in building energy efficiency include thermal storage in building elements that can be achieved via the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCM). Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with micro-encapsulated paraffin-based PCM have recently become commercially available. This work aims to shed light on the fire safety aspects of using such innovative building materials, by means of an extensive experimental and numerical simulation study. The main thermo-physical properties and the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of methods (i.e. thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, cone calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy). It is demonstrated that in the high temperature environment developing during a fire, the PCM paraffins evaporate and escape through the failed encapsulation shells and the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerging in the fire region, where they ignite increasing the effective fire load. The experimental data are used to develop a numerical model that accurately describes the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards. The model is implemented in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and is validated against cone calorimeter test results. CFD simulations are used to demonstrate that the use of paraffin-based PCM-enhanced construction materials may, in case the micro-encapsulation shells fail, adversely affect the fire safety characteristics of a building.

    KW - Gypsum plasterboard

    KW - Phase change material

    KW - PCM

    KW - Fire

    KW - Fire safety

    KW - CFD

    KW - TGA

    KW - DSC

    KW - Cone calorimeter

    KW - SEM

    U2 - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.02.004

    DO - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.02.004

    M3 - Article

    VL - 72

    SP - 50

    EP - 58

    JO - Fire Safety Journal

    T2 - Fire Safety Journal

    JF - Fire Safety Journal

    SN - 0379-7112

    ER -