Fire protection of light and massive timber elements using gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels: A large-scale compartment fire test

Dionysios Kolaitis, Eleni Asimakopoulou, Maria Founti

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    A full-scale compartment fire test was performed to assess gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels as cladding materials for the fire protection of light and massive timber elements. The test compartment was constructed using both the timber frame and the cross laminated timber techniques; a wood crib was used to achieve realistic fire conditions. Temperature measurements and optical inspection evidence suggested that gypsum plasterboards offered adequate fire protection since they did not fail and no charring was observed in the timber elements. A free standing wall inside the test compartment, protected by wood-based panels, partially collapsed. Measured values of characteristic failure times, such as time to failure of fire protection cladding and time to onset of charring, were compared to relevant Eurocode correlations, achieving good levels of agreement. The obtained set of measurements, describing the time evolution of a large variety of physical parameters, such as gas and wall layer temperatures, can be used for validation of relevant advanced fire simulation tools.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages163-170
    JournalConstruction and Building Materials
    Volume73
    Early online date15 Oct 2014
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Oct 2014

    Fingerprint

    Fire protection
    Gypsum
    Timber
    Wood
    Fires
    Temperature measurement
    Inspection
    Gases
    Temperature

    Keywords

    • Timber frame
    • Cross laminated timber
    • CLT
    • Gypsum plasterboard
    • Wood based panels
    • Fire protection
    • Timber construction
    • Compartment fire test

    Cite this

    @article{8b152b53a33440898e94d7625f44ecd7,
    title = "Fire protection of light and massive timber elements using gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels: A large-scale compartment fire test",
    abstract = "A full-scale compartment fire test was performed to assess gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels as cladding materials for the fire protection of light and massive timber elements. The test compartment was constructed using both the timber frame and the cross laminated timber techniques; a wood crib was used to achieve realistic fire conditions. Temperature measurements and optical inspection evidence suggested that gypsum plasterboards offered adequate fire protection since they did not fail and no charring was observed in the timber elements. A free standing wall inside the test compartment, protected by wood-based panels, partially collapsed. Measured values of characteristic failure times, such as time to failure of fire protection cladding and time to onset of charring, were compared to relevant Eurocode correlations, achieving good levels of agreement. The obtained set of measurements, describing the time evolution of a large variety of physical parameters, such as gas and wall layer temperatures, can be used for validation of relevant advanced fire simulation tools.",
    keywords = "Timber frame, Cross laminated timber, CLT, Gypsum plasterboard, Wood based panels, Fire protection, Timber construction, Compartment fire test",
    author = "Dionysios Kolaitis and Eleni Asimakopoulou and Maria Founti",
    note = "Reference text: [1] Pajchrowski G, Noskowiak A, Lewandowska A, Strkowski W. Wood as a building material in the light of environmental assessment of full life cycle of four buildings. Constr Build Mater 2014;52:428–36. [2] {\"O}stman B, Mikkola E, Stein R, Frangi A, K{\"o}nig J, Dhima D, et al. Fire safety in timber buildings: Technical guideline for Europe. SP Report 2010;2010:19. [3] EN 1995-1-2. Eurocode 5, Design of timber structures – Part 1–2: General – structural fire design. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization; 2004. [4] Tsantaridis LD, Oestman BAL, Koenig J. Fire protection of wood by different gypsum plasterboards. Fire Mater 1999;23(1):45–8. [5] Kolaitis DI, Founti MA. Development of a solid reaction kinetics gypsum dehydration model appropriate for CFD simulation of gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies exposed to fire. Fire Safety J 2013;58:151–9. [6] Gagnon S, Pirvu C. CLT Handbook, FPInnovations. Quebec, Canada: Special Publication SP-528E; 2011. [7] ISO 834–1. Fire-resistance tests – elements of building construction – Part 1: General requirements. Switzerland: International Standards Organization; 1999. [8] Frangi A, Fontana M, Hugi E, Joebstl R. Experimental analysis of crosslaminated timber panels in fire. Fire Safety J 2009;44(8):1078–87. [9] Yang TH, Wang SY, Tsai MJ, Lin CY. Temperature distribution within glued laminated timber during a standard exposure test. Mater Design 2009;30: 518–25. [10] Dagenais C, Osborne L, Benichou N. Full-scale fire performance of crosslaminated timber walls and floors. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26. Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013. p. 1157– 68. [11] Schmid J, Menis A, Fragiacomo M, Bostroem, Just A. The load-bearing performance of CLT wall elements in full scale fire tests. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1143–55. [12] Teibinger M. Fire resistance of timber constructions – evaluation of improved design models. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1465–76. [13] Park SH, Manzello SL, Bundy MF, Mizukami T. Experimental study on the performance of a load-bearing steel stud gypsum board wall assembly exposed to a real fire. Fire Safety J 2011;46(8):497–505. [14] Welch S, Jowsey A, Deeny S, Morgan R, Torero JL. BRE large compartment fire tests – characterising post-flashover fires for model validation. Fire Safety J 2007;42(8):548–67. [15] Wald F, Chlouba J, Uhlır A, Kallerova P, Stujberova M. Temperatures during fire tests on structure and its prediction according to Eurocodes. Fire Safety J 2009;44(1):135–46. [16] Hwang CH, Lock A, Bundy M, Johnsson E, Ko GH. Studies on fire characteristics in over- and underventilated full-scale compartments. J Fire Sci 2010;28(5): 459–86. [17] Moinuddin KAM, Al-Menhali JS, Prasannan K, Thomas IR. Rise in structural steel temperatures during ISO 9705 room fires. Fire Safety J 2011;46(8): 480–96. [18] Hakkarainen T. Post-flashover fires in light and heavy timber construction compartments. Journal Fire Sci 2002;20(2):133–75. [19] EN1991-1-2. Eurocode 1: actions on structures, Part 1–2: General actions on structures exposed to fire, 2002, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. [20] Frangi A, Bochicchio G, Ceccotti A, Lauriola MP. Natural full-scale fire test on a 3 storey XLam timber building. In: Proceedings of the 10th world conference on timber engineering. June 2–5, Miyazaki, Japan; 2008. [21] McGregor C, Hadjisophocleous G, Craft S. Contribution of cross laminated timber panels to room fires. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1453– 64. [22] Lennon T, Hopkin D, El-Rimawi J, Silberschmidt V. Large scale natural fire tests on protected engineered timber floor systems. Fire Safety J 2010;45(3): 168–82. [23] Wolfe AJ, Mealy CL, Gottuk DT. Fire dynamics and forensic analysis of limited ventilation compartment fires volume 1: Experimental, Grant No. 2007-DNBX-K240. Maryland: Hughes Associates Inc.; 2009. [24] Mackay D, Barber T, Yeoh GH. Experimental and computational studies of compartment fire behaviour. Build Environ 2010;45(12):2620–8. [25] ISO 1716. Reaction to fire tests for building products – Determination of the heat of combustion. Switzerland: International Standards Organization; 2002. [26] DiNenno PJ, Drysdale D, Beyler CL, Walton WD, Cruster RLP, Hall JR, et al. S.F.P.E. Handbook of fire protection engineering. 3rd ed. USA: National Fire Protection Association; 2002. [27] Tewarson A. Fully developed enclosure fires of wood cribs. In: Proceedings of the 20th international symposium on combustion. August 12–17, Michigan, UK: Elsevier; 1985, p. 1555–66. [28] Tang F, Hu L, Wang Q, Lu KH, Yang LZ. An experimental investigation on temperature profile of buoyant spill plume from under-ventilated compartment fires in a reduced pressure atmosphere at high altitude. Int J Heat Mass Trans 2012;55(21–22):5642–9. [29] Kolaitis DI, Asimakopoulou EK, Founti MA, Touliatos P. Experimental investigation of the fire behaviour of contemporary timber construction techniques (in Greek). Greek Fire Academy Report; 2011. [30] Luo M. Effects of radiation on temperature measurement in a fire environment. J Fire Sci 1998;15:443–61. [31] Koenig J. Structural fire design according to Eurocode 5 – design rules and their background. Fire Mater 2005;29:147–63. [32] Broheza S, Delvosalle C, Marlair G. A two-thermocouples probe for radiation corrections of measured temperatures in compartment fires. Fire Safety J 2004;39(5):399–411. [33] Brundage AL, Donaldson AB, Gill W, Kearney SP, Nicolette VF, Yilmaz N. Thermocouple response in fires, Part 1: consideration in flame temperature measurements by a thermocouple. J Fire Sci 2011;29:195–211. [34] Whitaker S. Forced convection heat transfer correlations for flow in pipes past flat plates, single cylinders, single spheres and for flow in packed beds and tube bundles. AICHE J 1972;18:361–71. [35] Brundage AL, Donaldson AB, Gill W, Kearney SP, Nicolette VF, Yilmaz N. Thermocouple response in fires, Part 2: validation of virtual thermocouple model for fire codes. J Fire Sci 2011;29:213–26.",
    year = "2014",
    month = "10",
    day = "15",
    doi = "10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.027",
    language = "English",
    volume = "73",
    pages = "163--170",
    journal = "Construction and Building Materials",
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    publisher = "Elsevier",

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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Fire protection of light and massive timber elements using gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels: A large-scale compartment fire test

    AU - Kolaitis, Dionysios

    AU - Asimakopoulou, Eleni

    AU - Founti, Maria

    N1 - Reference text: [1] Pajchrowski G, Noskowiak A, Lewandowska A, Strkowski W. Wood as a building material in the light of environmental assessment of full life cycle of four buildings. Constr Build Mater 2014;52:428–36. [2] Östman B, Mikkola E, Stein R, Frangi A, König J, Dhima D, et al. Fire safety in timber buildings: Technical guideline for Europe. SP Report 2010;2010:19. [3] EN 1995-1-2. Eurocode 5, Design of timber structures – Part 1–2: General – structural fire design. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization; 2004. [4] Tsantaridis LD, Oestman BAL, Koenig J. Fire protection of wood by different gypsum plasterboards. Fire Mater 1999;23(1):45–8. [5] Kolaitis DI, Founti MA. Development of a solid reaction kinetics gypsum dehydration model appropriate for CFD simulation of gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies exposed to fire. Fire Safety J 2013;58:151–9. [6] Gagnon S, Pirvu C. CLT Handbook, FPInnovations. Quebec, Canada: Special Publication SP-528E; 2011. [7] ISO 834–1. Fire-resistance tests – elements of building construction – Part 1: General requirements. Switzerland: International Standards Organization; 1999. [8] Frangi A, Fontana M, Hugi E, Joebstl R. Experimental analysis of crosslaminated timber panels in fire. Fire Safety J 2009;44(8):1078–87. [9] Yang TH, Wang SY, Tsai MJ, Lin CY. Temperature distribution within glued laminated timber during a standard exposure test. Mater Design 2009;30: 518–25. [10] Dagenais C, Osborne L, Benichou N. Full-scale fire performance of crosslaminated timber walls and floors. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26. Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013. p. 1157– 68. [11] Schmid J, Menis A, Fragiacomo M, Bostroem, Just A. The load-bearing performance of CLT wall elements in full scale fire tests. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1143–55. [12] Teibinger M. Fire resistance of timber constructions – evaluation of improved design models. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1465–76. [13] Park SH, Manzello SL, Bundy MF, Mizukami T. Experimental study on the performance of a load-bearing steel stud gypsum board wall assembly exposed to a real fire. Fire Safety J 2011;46(8):497–505. [14] Welch S, Jowsey A, Deeny S, Morgan R, Torero JL. BRE large compartment fire tests – characterising post-flashover fires for model validation. Fire Safety J 2007;42(8):548–67. [15] Wald F, Chlouba J, Uhlır A, Kallerova P, Stujberova M. Temperatures during fire tests on structure and its prediction according to Eurocodes. Fire Safety J 2009;44(1):135–46. [16] Hwang CH, Lock A, Bundy M, Johnsson E, Ko GH. Studies on fire characteristics in over- and underventilated full-scale compartments. J Fire Sci 2010;28(5): 459–86. [17] Moinuddin KAM, Al-Menhali JS, Prasannan K, Thomas IR. Rise in structural steel temperatures during ISO 9705 room fires. Fire Safety J 2011;46(8): 480–96. [18] Hakkarainen T. Post-flashover fires in light and heavy timber construction compartments. Journal Fire Sci 2002;20(2):133–75. [19] EN1991-1-2. Eurocode 1: actions on structures, Part 1–2: General actions on structures exposed to fire, 2002, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. [20] Frangi A, Bochicchio G, Ceccotti A, Lauriola MP. Natural full-scale fire test on a 3 storey XLam timber building. In: Proceedings of the 10th world conference on timber engineering. June 2–5, Miyazaki, Japan; 2008. [21] McGregor C, Hadjisophocleous G, Craft S. Contribution of cross laminated timber panels to room fires. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference and exhibition on fire science and engineering. June 24–26, Windsor, UK, London: Interscience Communications Limited; 2013, p. 1453– 64. [22] Lennon T, Hopkin D, El-Rimawi J, Silberschmidt V. Large scale natural fire tests on protected engineered timber floor systems. Fire Safety J 2010;45(3): 168–82. [23] Wolfe AJ, Mealy CL, Gottuk DT. Fire dynamics and forensic analysis of limited ventilation compartment fires volume 1: Experimental, Grant No. 2007-DNBX-K240. Maryland: Hughes Associates Inc.; 2009. [24] Mackay D, Barber T, Yeoh GH. Experimental and computational studies of compartment fire behaviour. Build Environ 2010;45(12):2620–8. [25] ISO 1716. Reaction to fire tests for building products – Determination of the heat of combustion. Switzerland: International Standards Organization; 2002. [26] DiNenno PJ, Drysdale D, Beyler CL, Walton WD, Cruster RLP, Hall JR, et al. S.F.P.E. Handbook of fire protection engineering. 3rd ed. USA: National Fire Protection Association; 2002. [27] Tewarson A. Fully developed enclosure fires of wood cribs. In: Proceedings of the 20th international symposium on combustion. August 12–17, Michigan, UK: Elsevier; 1985, p. 1555–66. [28] Tang F, Hu L, Wang Q, Lu KH, Yang LZ. An experimental investigation on temperature profile of buoyant spill plume from under-ventilated compartment fires in a reduced pressure atmosphere at high altitude. Int J Heat Mass Trans 2012;55(21–22):5642–9. [29] Kolaitis DI, Asimakopoulou EK, Founti MA, Touliatos P. Experimental investigation of the fire behaviour of contemporary timber construction techniques (in Greek). Greek Fire Academy Report; 2011. [30] Luo M. Effects of radiation on temperature measurement in a fire environment. J Fire Sci 1998;15:443–61. [31] Koenig J. Structural fire design according to Eurocode 5 – design rules and their background. Fire Mater 2005;29:147–63. [32] Broheza S, Delvosalle C, Marlair G. A two-thermocouples probe for radiation corrections of measured temperatures in compartment fires. Fire Safety J 2004;39(5):399–411. [33] Brundage AL, Donaldson AB, Gill W, Kearney SP, Nicolette VF, Yilmaz N. Thermocouple response in fires, Part 1: consideration in flame temperature measurements by a thermocouple. J Fire Sci 2011;29:195–211. [34] Whitaker S. Forced convection heat transfer correlations for flow in pipes past flat plates, single cylinders, single spheres and for flow in packed beds and tube bundles. AICHE J 1972;18:361–71. [35] Brundage AL, Donaldson AB, Gill W, Kearney SP, Nicolette VF, Yilmaz N. Thermocouple response in fires, Part 2: validation of virtual thermocouple model for fire codes. J Fire Sci 2011;29:213–26.

    PY - 2014/10/15

    Y1 - 2014/10/15

    N2 - A full-scale compartment fire test was performed to assess gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels as cladding materials for the fire protection of light and massive timber elements. The test compartment was constructed using both the timber frame and the cross laminated timber techniques; a wood crib was used to achieve realistic fire conditions. Temperature measurements and optical inspection evidence suggested that gypsum plasterboards offered adequate fire protection since they did not fail and no charring was observed in the timber elements. A free standing wall inside the test compartment, protected by wood-based panels, partially collapsed. Measured values of characteristic failure times, such as time to failure of fire protection cladding and time to onset of charring, were compared to relevant Eurocode correlations, achieving good levels of agreement. The obtained set of measurements, describing the time evolution of a large variety of physical parameters, such as gas and wall layer temperatures, can be used for validation of relevant advanced fire simulation tools.

    AB - A full-scale compartment fire test was performed to assess gypsum plasterboards and wood based panels as cladding materials for the fire protection of light and massive timber elements. The test compartment was constructed using both the timber frame and the cross laminated timber techniques; a wood crib was used to achieve realistic fire conditions. Temperature measurements and optical inspection evidence suggested that gypsum plasterboards offered adequate fire protection since they did not fail and no charring was observed in the timber elements. A free standing wall inside the test compartment, protected by wood-based panels, partially collapsed. Measured values of characteristic failure times, such as time to failure of fire protection cladding and time to onset of charring, were compared to relevant Eurocode correlations, achieving good levels of agreement. The obtained set of measurements, describing the time evolution of a large variety of physical parameters, such as gas and wall layer temperatures, can be used for validation of relevant advanced fire simulation tools.

    KW - Timber frame

    KW - Cross laminated timber

    KW - CLT

    KW - Gypsum plasterboard

    KW - Wood based panels

    KW - Fire protection

    KW - Timber construction

    KW - Compartment fire test

    U2 - 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.027

    DO - 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.027

    M3 - Article

    VL - 73

    SP - 163

    EP - 170

    JO - Construction and Building Materials

    T2 - Construction and Building Materials

    JF - Construction and Building Materials

    SN - 0950-0618

    ER -