Fabrication and in vivo evaluation of hydroxyapatite/carbon nanotube electrospun fibers for biomedical/dental application

AS Khan, AN Hussain, L Sidra, Z Sarfraz, H Khalid, M Khan, F Manzoor, L Shahzadi, M Yar, IU Rehman

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58 Citations (Scopus)


The aim was to synthesize bioactive electrospun fibers for biomedical and dental application with improved biocompatibility. In situ precipitation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was performed with various concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5% wt/wt) of functionalized multi-walled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by using microwave irradiation technique. The obtained composites were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and the cylindrical discs were made for mechanical testing. The failure behavior was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). CNT and HA/CNT were silanized with γ-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (10% wt./vol.) and electrospun to fabricate fibers. The biocompatibility of both fibers was accessed by their effects on angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The electrospun fibers were analyzed by SEM. FTIR confirmed the structural behavior of pre and post-silanized HA/CNT. XRD showed the phase purity and crystallinity before and after heat treatment. Mechanical properties showed that 3% loaded HA/CNT has higher compressive strength (100.5±5.9 MPa) compared to others and the failure behavior exhibited dispersion of CNT in HA matrix. The HA/CNT electrospun fibers showed significantly more blood vessels formation compared to CNT fibers. These HA/CNT electrospun fibers showed promising results in terms of biocompatibility and with improved mechanical properties of CNT reinforced composites, they can be used in load bearing clinical applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-396
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering: C
Early online date17 May 2017
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Nov 2017


  • Carbon nanotube
  • Nano-hydroxyapatite
  • Electrospinning
  • CAM assay
  • Biomaterials


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