Explosion free in fire self-venting (TPRD-less) composite tanks: Performance during fire intervention

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This paper describes the performance of explosion free in fire self-venting (TPRD-less) composite tanks in fires of realistic specific heat release rate (HRR/A), i.e., total fire HRR over the source area, A, of HRR/A = 1 MW/m 2, during fire intervention. This breakthrough safety technology does not require thermally activated pressure relief devices (TPRD). It provides microleaks-no-burst (μLNB) performance of hydrogen storage tanks in fire. The study investigated two fire intervention strategies, i.e., removal of vehicle with μLNB tank from the fire, and extinction of fire by water. One carbon-carbon and one carbon-basalt double-composite wall tanks were assessed in the removal from fire scenario. Four carbon-basalt prototypes were studied in fire extinction scenarios. All six prototypes of 7.5 L and nominal working pressure of 70 MPa have demonstrated safe release of hydrogen through microchannels of the wall after the liner melting. The μLNB technology allows to apply standard intervention strategies and tactics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)804-814
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Early online date21 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 21 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was undertaken as part of the HyTunnel-CS project No. 826193 and HyResponder project No. 875089 supported by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (now Clean Hydrogen Partnership) and its members.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • hydrogen safety
  • composite hydrogen storage tanks
  • fire test
  • intervention strategies and tactics
  • breakthrough safety technology
  • breakthrough
  • safety technology
  • Breakthrough safety technology
  • Intervention strategies and tactics
  • Hydrogen safety
  • Fire test
  • Composite hydrogen storage tanks


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