Explaining the pattern of growth in strategic actions taken by police services during the New Labour years: an exploratory study of an English police service

Gordon Marnoch, John Topping, Gavin Boyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

After a decade of rapid spending increases under New Labour, this paper seeks to explain the pattern of growth in the range of strategic actions undertaken by police services during that period. Referring to a longitudinal analysis of documents, including annual reports, which related to strategic actions takenby one English police service (Blueshire), the common perception that ‘policemission’ has been subject to expansionary pressures is placed under scrutiny. An analysis is conducted which differentiates between new and cyclical policy issues and whether the strategic response is locally or centrally directed. Content analysis derived data has been supplemented with information secured during interviews with police leaders, to provide greater contextual depth. While it was observed that the capacity of police leaders to focus on core policing roles has, to some extent, been compromised, this cannot be explained purely in terms of central government pressure. The concept of path dependency is used to explain how this has occurred. A discussion is provided of the implications for the strategic direction of policing.
LanguageEnglish
JournalPolicing and Society
Volume0
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2013

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New Labour
police
leader
annual report
content analysis
interview

Keywords

  • strategy
  • policing
  • path dependency
  • mission

Cite this

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title = "Explaining the pattern of growth in strategic actions taken by police services during the New Labour years: an exploratory study of an English police service",
abstract = "After a decade of rapid spending increases under New Labour, this paper seeks to explain the pattern of growth in the range of strategic actions undertaken by police services during that period. Referring to a longitudinal analysis of documents, including annual reports, which related to strategic actions takenby one English police service (Blueshire), the common perception that ‘policemission’ has been subject to expansionary pressures is placed under scrutiny. An analysis is conducted which differentiates between new and cyclical policy issues and whether the strategic response is locally or centrally directed. Content analysis derived data has been supplemented with information secured during interviews with police leaders, to provide greater contextual depth. While it was observed that the capacity of police leaders to focus on core policing roles has, to some extent, been compromised, this cannot be explained purely in terms of central government pressure. The concept of path dependency is used to explain how this has occurred. A discussion is provided of the implications for the strategic direction of policing.",
keywords = "strategy, policing, path dependency, mission",
author = "Gordon Marnoch and John Topping and Gavin Boyd",
note = "Reference text: References Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), 2005. Vision forWorkforce Modernisation The missing component of police reform [online], 1. Available from: http://policeauthority.org/ metropolitan/downloads/foi/briefings/0610ps-appendix01.pdf Bates, S. and Carter, H., 2010. Bobbies on the tweet police go online [online]. The Guardian. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/oct/14/manchester-police-twitterexperiment [Accessed 24 October 2010]. Bayley, D.H., 1994. Patterns of policing: a comparative international analysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University. Brodeur, J.-P., 2010. The policing web. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Brodgen, M. and Nijhar, P., 2005. Community policing: national and international approaches. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Chan, J., 2003. Fair cop: learning the art of policing. London: University of Toronto Press. Chriss, J.J., 2007. Social control: an introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press. Collier, P.M., 2006. Policing and the intelligent application of knowledge. Public Money and Management, 26 (2), 109116. Crawford, A., 1995. Appeals to community and crime prevention. Crime, Law and Social Change, 22 (2), 97126. Crawford, A., 1998. Crime prevention and community safety: politics, policies and practices. London: Longman. Crawford, A., 2008. Plural policing in the UK: policing beyond the police. In: T. Newburn, ed. Handbook of policing. 2nd ed. Collumpton: Willan Publishing. Crawford, A. and Lister, S., 2006. Additional security patrols in residential areas: notes from the market place. Policing and Society, 16 (2), 164188. Deacon, A., 2004. Justifying conditionality: the case of anti-social tenants. Housing Studies, 19 (6), 911926. Emsley, C., 1996. The English police: a political and social history. Harlow: Longman. Emsley, C., 2009. The great British bobby: a history of British policing from the 18th century to the present. London: Quercus Publishing. Findlay, M., 2000. The globalisation of crime: understanding transitional relationships in context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Flannigan, R., 2008. The review of policing: final report. London: HMIC. Friedland, R. and Alford, R., 1991. Bringing society back in: symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In: W. Powell and P. DiMaggio, eds. The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 232263. Garland, D., 1996. The limits of the sovereign state: strategies of crime control in contemporary society. British Journal of Criminology, 36 (4), 445471. Garland, D., 2001. The culture of control: crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 14 G. Marnoch et al. Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 12:06 09 April 2013 Her Majesty’s Government, 2010. Pursue, prevent, protect, prepare: the United Kingdom’s strategy for countering international terrorism. London: The Stationary Office. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2005. Baseline Assessments. London: HMIC. Hillyard, P., 2009. The ‘exceptional’ state. In: R. Coleman, J. Sim, S. Tombs, and D. Whyte, eds. State, power, crime. London: Sage Publications Limited. Hoffman, A.J., 1999. Institutional evolution and change: environmentalism and the US chemical industry. Academy of Management Journal, 42 (4), 351371. Home Office, 2010. Policing in the 21st century: reconnecting police and the people (Cm 7925). London: TSO. Hughes, G., 2007. The politics of crime and community. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Innes, M., 2005. Why ‘soft’ policing is hard: on the curious development of reassurance policing, how it became neighbourhood policing and what this signifies about the politics of police reform. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15 (3), 156169. Jenkins, S., 2009. In its mania to jail people, Britain has declared trivial offences crimes [online]. The Guardian. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/dec/ 10/conrad-black-labour-law-crime [Accessed 24 October 2010]. Johnston, L., 2003. From ‘pluralisation’ to ‘the police extended family’: discourses on the governance of community policing in Britain. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 31 (3), 185204. Johnston, L., 2005. From ‘community’ to ‘neighbourhood’ policing: police community support officers and the ‘police extended family in London. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15 (3), 241254. Johnston, L. and Shearing, C., 2003. Governing security: explorations in policing and justice. London: Routledge. Jones, T. and Newburn, T., 2002. The transformation of policing? Understanding current trends in policing systems. British Journal of Criminology, 42 (1), 129146. Joyce, P., 1999. Strategic management for the public services. Open University Press: Buckingham. Kelling, G. and Moore, M., 2005. The evolving strategy of policing. In: T. Newburn, ed. Policing: key readings. Cullumpton: Willan, 88108. Knepper, P., 2007. Criminology and social policy. London: Sage Publications Limited. Krippendorff, K., 2004. Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2007. Civilising security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Loveday, B., 2000. Managing crime: police use of data as an indicator of effectiveness. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 28 (3), 215237. Loveday, B., 2006. Policing performance: the impact of performance measures and targets on police forces in England and Wales. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 8 (4), 282293. McLaughlin, E., Muncie, J., and Hughes, G., 2001. The permanent revolution: new labour, new public management and the modernization of criminal justice. Criminal Justice, 1 (3), 301318. McLaughlin, E., 2007. The new policing. London: Sage. Macpherson, S.W., 1999. The Stephen Lawrence inquiry: report of an inquiry. London: HMSO. Mead, R., 2010. Building a police workforce for the future [online]. London: Police Federation for England and Wales. Available from: http://www.polfed.org/E8CB00468FF24F7ABE143B838859AD2C. asp [Accessed 17 November 2010]. Mills, H., Silvestri, A., and Grimshaw, R., 2010. Police expenditure 19992009. London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. Maguire, M. and John, T., 2006. Intelligence-led policing, managerialism and community engagement: competing priorities and the role of the national intelligence model in the UK. Policing and Society, 16 (1), 6785. Manning, P., 1977. Police work: the social organization of policing. London: The MIT Press. Neuendorf, K., 2002. The content analysis guidebook. Thousand oaks: Sage. Newburn, T., 2002. Community safety and policing: some implications of the crime and disorder act 1998. In: G. Hughes, E. McLauglin, and J. Muncie, eds. Crime prevention and community safety: new directions. London: Sage Publications, 102122. Policing & Society 15 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 12:06 09 April 2013 Orde, H., 2010, April. Visiting professors address. Jordanstown: University of Ulster. Peters, B.G., 1999. Institutional theory: the new institutionalism in political science. London: Cassels. Pierson, P., 2000. Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. American Political Science Review, 94 (2), 251267. Pollitt, C. and Bouckaert, G., 2009. Continuity and change in public policy and management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Pollitt, C., 2010. Implementing new technologies. In: EGPA annual conference, study group XIII, 8 September 2010. Toulouse, France: EGPA, 115. Reiner, R., 2000. The politics of the police. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reiner, R., 2010. The politics of the police. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rodger, J., 2008. Criminalising social policy: antisocial behaviour and welfare in a de-civilised society. Cullompton: Willan. Rowe, M., 2008. Introduction to policing. London: Sage Publications. Sabatier, P., 1999. Theories of the policy process. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Scott, W.R., 1995. Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Topping, J.R., 2008. Diversifying from within: community policing and the governance of security in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Criminology, 48 (6), 778797. Undheim, T., 2003, 30 June. Getting connected: how sociologists can access the high tech elite [online]. The Qualitative Report. Available from: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR8-1/ undheim.pdf [Accessed 28 January 2006]. Ventresca, M. and Mohr, J., 2002. Archival research methods. In: J. Baum, ed. The Blackwell companion to organizations. Oxford: Blackwell, 805828. Wood, J. and Shearing, C., 2007. Imagining security. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Zedner, L., 2003. Too much security? 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T1 - Explaining the pattern of growth in strategic actions taken by police services during the New Labour years: an exploratory study of an English police service

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AU - Topping, John

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N1 - Reference text: References Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), 2005. Vision forWorkforce Modernisation The missing component of police reform [online], 1. Available from: http://policeauthority.org/ metropolitan/downloads/foi/briefings/0610ps-appendix01.pdf Bates, S. and Carter, H., 2010. Bobbies on the tweet police go online [online]. The Guardian. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/oct/14/manchester-police-twitterexperiment [Accessed 24 October 2010]. Bayley, D.H., 1994. Patterns of policing: a comparative international analysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University. Brodeur, J.-P., 2010. The policing web. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Brodgen, M. and Nijhar, P., 2005. Community policing: national and international approaches. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Chan, J., 2003. Fair cop: learning the art of policing. London: University of Toronto Press. Chriss, J.J., 2007. Social control: an introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press. Collier, P.M., 2006. Policing and the intelligent application of knowledge. Public Money and Management, 26 (2), 109116. Crawford, A., 1995. Appeals to community and crime prevention. Crime, Law and Social Change, 22 (2), 97126. Crawford, A., 1998. Crime prevention and community safety: politics, policies and practices. London: Longman. Crawford, A., 2008. Plural policing in the UK: policing beyond the police. In: T. Newburn, ed. Handbook of policing. 2nd ed. Collumpton: Willan Publishing. Crawford, A. and Lister, S., 2006. Additional security patrols in residential areas: notes from the market place. Policing and Society, 16 (2), 164188. Deacon, A., 2004. Justifying conditionality: the case of anti-social tenants. Housing Studies, 19 (6), 911926. Emsley, C., 1996. The English police: a political and social history. Harlow: Longman. Emsley, C., 2009. The great British bobby: a history of British policing from the 18th century to the present. London: Quercus Publishing. Findlay, M., 2000. The globalisation of crime: understanding transitional relationships in context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Flannigan, R., 2008. The review of policing: final report. London: HMIC. Friedland, R. and Alford, R., 1991. Bringing society back in: symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In: W. Powell and P. DiMaggio, eds. The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 232263. Garland, D., 1996. The limits of the sovereign state: strategies of crime control in contemporary society. British Journal of Criminology, 36 (4), 445471. Garland, D., 2001. The culture of control: crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 14 G. Marnoch et al. Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 12:06 09 April 2013 Her Majesty’s Government, 2010. Pursue, prevent, protect, prepare: the United Kingdom’s strategy for countering international terrorism. London: The Stationary Office. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2005. Baseline Assessments. London: HMIC. Hillyard, P., 2009. The ‘exceptional’ state. In: R. Coleman, J. Sim, S. Tombs, and D. Whyte, eds. State, power, crime. London: Sage Publications Limited. Hoffman, A.J., 1999. Institutional evolution and change: environmentalism and the US chemical industry. Academy of Management Journal, 42 (4), 351371. Home Office, 2010. Policing in the 21st century: reconnecting police and the people (Cm 7925). London: TSO. Hughes, G., 2007. The politics of crime and community. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Innes, M., 2005. Why ‘soft’ policing is hard: on the curious development of reassurance policing, how it became neighbourhood policing and what this signifies about the politics of police reform. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15 (3), 156169. Jenkins, S., 2009. In its mania to jail people, Britain has declared trivial offences crimes [online]. The Guardian. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/dec/ 10/conrad-black-labour-law-crime [Accessed 24 October 2010]. Johnston, L., 2003. From ‘pluralisation’ to ‘the police extended family’: discourses on the governance of community policing in Britain. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 31 (3), 185204. Johnston, L., 2005. From ‘community’ to ‘neighbourhood’ policing: police community support officers and the ‘police extended family in London. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15 (3), 241254. Johnston, L. and Shearing, C., 2003. Governing security: explorations in policing and justice. London: Routledge. Jones, T. and Newburn, T., 2002. The transformation of policing? Understanding current trends in policing systems. British Journal of Criminology, 42 (1), 129146. Joyce, P., 1999. Strategic management for the public services. Open University Press: Buckingham. Kelling, G. and Moore, M., 2005. The evolving strategy of policing. In: T. Newburn, ed. Policing: key readings. Cullumpton: Willan, 88108. Knepper, P., 2007. Criminology and social policy. London: Sage Publications Limited. Krippendorff, K., 2004. Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2007. Civilising security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Loveday, B., 2000. Managing crime: police use of data as an indicator of effectiveness. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 28 (3), 215237. Loveday, B., 2006. Policing performance: the impact of performance measures and targets on police forces in England and Wales. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 8 (4), 282293. McLaughlin, E., Muncie, J., and Hughes, G., 2001. The permanent revolution: new labour, new public management and the modernization of criminal justice. Criminal Justice, 1 (3), 301318. McLaughlin, E., 2007. The new policing. London: Sage. Macpherson, S.W., 1999. The Stephen Lawrence inquiry: report of an inquiry. London: HMSO. Mead, R., 2010. Building a police workforce for the future [online]. London: Police Federation for England and Wales. Available from: http://www.polfed.org/E8CB00468FF24F7ABE143B838859AD2C. asp [Accessed 17 November 2010]. Mills, H., Silvestri, A., and Grimshaw, R., 2010. Police expenditure 19992009. London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. Maguire, M. and John, T., 2006. Intelligence-led policing, managerialism and community engagement: competing priorities and the role of the national intelligence model in the UK. Policing and Society, 16 (1), 6785. Manning, P., 1977. Police work: the social organization of policing. London: The MIT Press. Neuendorf, K., 2002. The content analysis guidebook. Thousand oaks: Sage. Newburn, T., 2002. Community safety and policing: some implications of the crime and disorder act 1998. In: G. Hughes, E. McLauglin, and J. Muncie, eds. Crime prevention and community safety: new directions. London: Sage Publications, 102122. Policing & Society 15 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 12:06 09 April 2013 Orde, H., 2010, April. Visiting professors address. Jordanstown: University of Ulster. Peters, B.G., 1999. Institutional theory: the new institutionalism in political science. London: Cassels. Pierson, P., 2000. Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. American Political Science Review, 94 (2), 251267. Pollitt, C. and Bouckaert, G., 2009. Continuity and change in public policy and management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Pollitt, C., 2010. Implementing new technologies. In: EGPA annual conference, study group XIII, 8 September 2010. Toulouse, France: EGPA, 115. Reiner, R., 2000. The politics of the police. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reiner, R., 2010. The politics of the police. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rodger, J., 2008. Criminalising social policy: antisocial behaviour and welfare in a de-civilised society. Cullompton: Willan. Rowe, M., 2008. Introduction to policing. London: Sage Publications. Sabatier, P., 1999. Theories of the policy process. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Scott, W.R., 1995. Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Topping, J.R., 2008. Diversifying from within: community policing and the governance of security in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Criminology, 48 (6), 778797. Undheim, T., 2003, 30 June. Getting connected: how sociologists can access the high tech elite [online]. The Qualitative Report. Available from: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR8-1/ undheim.pdf [Accessed 28 January 2006]. Ventresca, M. and Mohr, J., 2002. Archival research methods. In: J. Baum, ed. The Blackwell companion to organizations. Oxford: Blackwell, 805828. Wood, J. and Shearing, C., 2007. Imagining security. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Zedner, L., 2003. Too much security? International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 31 (3), 155184.

PY - 2013/4/9

Y1 - 2013/4/9

N2 - After a decade of rapid spending increases under New Labour, this paper seeks to explain the pattern of growth in the range of strategic actions undertaken by police services during that period. Referring to a longitudinal analysis of documents, including annual reports, which related to strategic actions takenby one English police service (Blueshire), the common perception that ‘policemission’ has been subject to expansionary pressures is placed under scrutiny. An analysis is conducted which differentiates between new and cyclical policy issues and whether the strategic response is locally or centrally directed. Content analysis derived data has been supplemented with information secured during interviews with police leaders, to provide greater contextual depth. While it was observed that the capacity of police leaders to focus on core policing roles has, to some extent, been compromised, this cannot be explained purely in terms of central government pressure. The concept of path dependency is used to explain how this has occurred. A discussion is provided of the implications for the strategic direction of policing.

AB - After a decade of rapid spending increases under New Labour, this paper seeks to explain the pattern of growth in the range of strategic actions undertaken by police services during that period. Referring to a longitudinal analysis of documents, including annual reports, which related to strategic actions takenby one English police service (Blueshire), the common perception that ‘policemission’ has been subject to expansionary pressures is placed under scrutiny. An analysis is conducted which differentiates between new and cyclical policy issues and whether the strategic response is locally or centrally directed. Content analysis derived data has been supplemented with information secured during interviews with police leaders, to provide greater contextual depth. While it was observed that the capacity of police leaders to focus on core policing roles has, to some extent, been compromised, this cannot be explained purely in terms of central government pressure. The concept of path dependency is used to explain how this has occurred. A discussion is provided of the implications for the strategic direction of policing.

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KW - path dependency

KW - mission

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