Experimental and Computational Investigation of CO Production and Dispersion in an Automotive Repair Shop

Eleni Asimakopoulou, Dionysios Kolaitis, Maria Founti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carbon monoxide (CO), a highly toxic gas, is produced during the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. In indoor environments, high CO concentrations constitute a serious occupational health hazard; this is especially true in the case of automotive repair shop (ARS) employees who are exposed on a daily basis to vehicle exhaust streams. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of CO production and dispersion inside an ARS facility. Detailed measurements of CO concentration, vehicle traffic and ventilation system velocities are performed; the obtained data are appropriately formulated to provide quantitative information for modelling purposes. A detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the developing transient flow-field is performed. The numerical results are validated using the experimental data; an overall good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved. Aiming to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical ventilation system, three alternative scenarios are investigated; it is shown that the utilization of a dynamic ventilation system may result in significant energy consumption benefits, while, at the same time, CO concentrations remain below the values suggested by current occupational health legislation. The obtained results may be utilized to assist the design of mechanical ventilation systems for ARS facilities.
LanguageEnglish
Pages750-765
JournalExperimental and Computational Investigation of CO Production and Dispersion in an Automotive Repair Shop
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2012

Fingerprint

Carbon monoxide
Repair
Ventilation
Health hazards
Computer simulation
Energy efficiency
Flow fields
Computational fluid dynamics
Energy utilization
Health
Personnel
Carbon
Gases
Artificial Respiration

Keywords

  • CO
  • Dispersion
  • Automotive repair shop
  • CFD
  • Indoor air quality
  • Occupational health

Cite this

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title = "Experimental and Computational Investigation of CO Production and Dispersion in an Automotive Repair Shop",
abstract = "Carbon monoxide (CO), a highly toxic gas, is produced during the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. In indoor environments, high CO concentrations constitute a serious occupational health hazard; this is especially true in the case of automotive repair shop (ARS) employees who are exposed on a daily basis to vehicle exhaust streams. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of CO production and dispersion inside an ARS facility. Detailed measurements of CO concentration, vehicle traffic and ventilation system velocities are performed; the obtained data are appropriately formulated to provide quantitative information for modelling purposes. A detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the developing transient flow-field is performed. The numerical results are validated using the experimental data; an overall good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved. Aiming to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical ventilation system, three alternative scenarios are investigated; it is shown that the utilization of a dynamic ventilation system may result in significant energy consumption benefits, while, at the same time, CO concentrations remain below the values suggested by current occupational health legislation. The obtained results may be utilized to assist the design of mechanical ventilation systems for ARS facilities.",
keywords = "CO, Dispersion, Automotive repair shop, CFD, Indoor air quality, Occupational health",
author = "Eleni Asimakopoulou and Dionysios Kolaitis and Maria Founti",
note = "Reference text: 1. Turns RS: An Introduction to Combustion, Concepts and Applications, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill: Singapore, , 2011. Google Scholar 2. Tam CW, Bevan RJ, Harrison PTC, Youngs LC, Crump D: Public health impacts of exposure to carbon monoxide from gas appliances in UK homes – are we missing something? Indoor Built Environ 2012;21(2):229–240. Google Scholar Abstract 3. Nelson GL: Effects of carbon monoxide in man: exposure fatality studies: in Hischler MM, Debanne SM, Larsen JB, Nelson GL (eds): Carbon Monoxide and Human Lethality: Fire and Non-Fire Studies, London, Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, 1993, pp. 3–62. Google Scholar 4. Bateman DN: Carbon monoxide: Medicine 2007;35:604–605. Google Scholar 5. Chow WK, Wong LT, Fung WY: Field study on the indoor thermal environment and carbon monoxide levels in a large underground car park: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 1996;11:333–343. Google Scholar 6. Chaloulakou A, Duci A, Spyrellis N: Exposure to carbon monoxide in enclosed multi-level parking garages in the central Athens: Indoor Built Environ 2002;11:191–201. Google Scholar Abstract 7. Ho JC, Xue H, Tay KL: A field study on determination of carbon monoxide level and thermal environment in an underground car park: Build Environ 2004;39:67–75. Google Scholar 8. Kim RS, Dominici F, Buckley JT: Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage: Environ Res 2007;105:291–299. Google Scholar 9. Apte MG: A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter: PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1997. 10. Amendola AA, Hanes NB: Characterization of indoor carbon monoxide levels produced by the automobile: in Indoor Air: Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Stockholm, Sweden, August 20–24, 1984, Vol. 4, pp. 97–102. 11. Flachsbart PG: Human exposure to carbon monoxide from mobile sources: Chemosphere: Global Change Sci 1999;1:301–329. Google Scholar 12. WHO: Air Quality Guidelines, 2nd edn. Copenhagen, Regional Office for Europe, 2000. Google Scholar 13. NIOSH: The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Carbon Monoxide. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2004. 14. ACGIH: Thresholds Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices 1992–1993. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1994. 15. Council Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996: Ambient air quality assessment and management: Off J Eur Commun L 1996;296:55–63. Google Scholar 16. Chaloulakou A, Mavroidis I, Duci A: Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentration relationships at different micro environments in the Athens area: Chemosphere 2003;52:1007–1019. Google Scholar 17. Bari S, Naser J: Simulation of smoke from a burning vehicle and pollution levels caused by traffic jam in a road tunnel: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 2005;20:281–290. Google Scholar 18. Lin Z, Jiang F, Chow TT, Tsang CF, Lu WZZ: CFD analysis of ventilation effectiveness in a public transport interchange: Build Environ 2006;41:254–261. Google Scholar 19. Chan MY, Chow WK: Car-park ventilation system: performance evaluation: Build Environ 2004;39:635–643. Google Scholar 20. Chow WK: On ventilation design for underground car parks: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 1995;10:225–245. Google Scholar 21. Greek Presidential Decree: No. 78/1988 governing the terms and conditions for establishing and operating repair shops for automobiles, motorcycles and motorbikes: Greek Off Gaz 34/Α/25-2-1988 (in Greek). 22. McGrattan K, Hostikka S, Floyd J, Baum H, Rehm R, Mell W, McDermott R: Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5) Technical Reference Guide. 1018-5. Washington DC: NIST Special Publication, 2010. 23. Rinne T, Hietaniemi J, Hostikka S: Experimental Validation of the FDS Simulations of Smoke and Toxic Gas Concentrations. VTT Working Papers 66, VTT-WORK-66, VTT, Espoo, 2007. 24. Mniszewski KR, Pape R: The Use of FDS for Estimation of Flammable Gas/Vapor Concentrations: in Proceedings of 3 rd Technical Symposium on Computer Applications in Fire Protection Engineering, Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Blatimore, MD, USA, September 12–13, 2001, pp. 143–155. 25. Musser A, Mac Grattan K, Palmer J: Evaluation of a Fast, Simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solving Room Airflow Problems. Washington DC: NISTIR 6760, 2001. 26. ASHRAE: ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Applications, Chap. 12. Atlanta, GA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc, 2011, p. 15. 27. Papakonstantinou K, Chaloulakou A, Duci A, Vlachakis N, Markatos N: Air quality in an underground garage: computational and experimental investigation of ventilation effectiveness: Energy Build 2003;35:933–940. Google Scholar 28. Spengler JD, Chen QY, Dilwali KM: Indoor air quality factors in designing a healthy building: in Spengler JD, Samet JM, McCarthy JF (eds): Indoor Air Quality Handbook, New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 2000, pp. 5.1–5.30. Google Scholar 29. Greek Presidential Decree: No. 455/76 governing the terms and conditions for establishing and operating car stations and installing in them car-washes and lubricating devices. Greek Off Gaz 169/A/5-7-1976 (in Greek). 30. Burgess WA, Ellenbecker MJ, Treitman RD: Ventilation for control of the work environment, 2nd edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. Google Scholar",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Experimental and Computational Investigation of CO Production and Dispersion in an Automotive Repair Shop

AU - Asimakopoulou, Eleni

AU - Kolaitis, Dionysios

AU - Founti, Maria

N1 - Reference text: 1. Turns RS: An Introduction to Combustion, Concepts and Applications, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill: Singapore, , 2011. Google Scholar 2. Tam CW, Bevan RJ, Harrison PTC, Youngs LC, Crump D: Public health impacts of exposure to carbon monoxide from gas appliances in UK homes – are we missing something? Indoor Built Environ 2012;21(2):229–240. Google Scholar Abstract 3. Nelson GL: Effects of carbon monoxide in man: exposure fatality studies: in Hischler MM, Debanne SM, Larsen JB, Nelson GL (eds): Carbon Monoxide and Human Lethality: Fire and Non-Fire Studies, London, Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, 1993, pp. 3–62. Google Scholar 4. Bateman DN: Carbon monoxide: Medicine 2007;35:604–605. Google Scholar 5. Chow WK, Wong LT, Fung WY: Field study on the indoor thermal environment and carbon monoxide levels in a large underground car park: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 1996;11:333–343. Google Scholar 6. Chaloulakou A, Duci A, Spyrellis N: Exposure to carbon monoxide in enclosed multi-level parking garages in the central Athens: Indoor Built Environ 2002;11:191–201. Google Scholar Abstract 7. Ho JC, Xue H, Tay KL: A field study on determination of carbon monoxide level and thermal environment in an underground car park: Build Environ 2004;39:67–75. Google Scholar 8. Kim RS, Dominici F, Buckley JT: Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage: Environ Res 2007;105:291–299. Google Scholar 9. Apte MG: A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter: PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1997. 10. Amendola AA, Hanes NB: Characterization of indoor carbon monoxide levels produced by the automobile: in Indoor Air: Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Stockholm, Sweden, August 20–24, 1984, Vol. 4, pp. 97–102. 11. Flachsbart PG: Human exposure to carbon monoxide from mobile sources: Chemosphere: Global Change Sci 1999;1:301–329. Google Scholar 12. WHO: Air Quality Guidelines, 2nd edn. Copenhagen, Regional Office for Europe, 2000. Google Scholar 13. NIOSH: The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Carbon Monoxide. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2004. 14. ACGIH: Thresholds Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices 1992–1993. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1994. 15. Council Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996: Ambient air quality assessment and management: Off J Eur Commun L 1996;296:55–63. Google Scholar 16. Chaloulakou A, Mavroidis I, Duci A: Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentration relationships at different micro environments in the Athens area: Chemosphere 2003;52:1007–1019. Google Scholar 17. Bari S, Naser J: Simulation of smoke from a burning vehicle and pollution levels caused by traffic jam in a road tunnel: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 2005;20:281–290. Google Scholar 18. Lin Z, Jiang F, Chow TT, Tsang CF, Lu WZZ: CFD analysis of ventilation effectiveness in a public transport interchange: Build Environ 2006;41:254–261. Google Scholar 19. Chan MY, Chow WK: Car-park ventilation system: performance evaluation: Build Environ 2004;39:635–643. Google Scholar 20. Chow WK: On ventilation design for underground car parks: Tunn Undergr Sp Tech 1995;10:225–245. Google Scholar 21. Greek Presidential Decree: No. 78/1988 governing the terms and conditions for establishing and operating repair shops for automobiles, motorcycles and motorbikes: Greek Off Gaz 34/Α/25-2-1988 (in Greek). 22. McGrattan K, Hostikka S, Floyd J, Baum H, Rehm R, Mell W, McDermott R: Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5) Technical Reference Guide. 1018-5. Washington DC: NIST Special Publication, 2010. 23. Rinne T, Hietaniemi J, Hostikka S: Experimental Validation of the FDS Simulations of Smoke and Toxic Gas Concentrations. VTT Working Papers 66, VTT-WORK-66, VTT, Espoo, 2007. 24. Mniszewski KR, Pape R: The Use of FDS for Estimation of Flammable Gas/Vapor Concentrations: in Proceedings of 3 rd Technical Symposium on Computer Applications in Fire Protection Engineering, Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Blatimore, MD, USA, September 12–13, 2001, pp. 143–155. 25. Musser A, Mac Grattan K, Palmer J: Evaluation of a Fast, Simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solving Room Airflow Problems. Washington DC: NISTIR 6760, 2001. 26. ASHRAE: ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Applications, Chap. 12. Atlanta, GA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc, 2011, p. 15. 27. Papakonstantinou K, Chaloulakou A, Duci A, Vlachakis N, Markatos N: Air quality in an underground garage: computational and experimental investigation of ventilation effectiveness: Energy Build 2003;35:933–940. Google Scholar 28. Spengler JD, Chen QY, Dilwali KM: Indoor air quality factors in designing a healthy building: in Spengler JD, Samet JM, McCarthy JF (eds): Indoor Air Quality Handbook, New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 2000, pp. 5.1–5.30. Google Scholar 29. Greek Presidential Decree: No. 455/76 governing the terms and conditions for establishing and operating car stations and installing in them car-washes and lubricating devices. Greek Off Gaz 169/A/5-7-1976 (in Greek). 30. Burgess WA, Ellenbecker MJ, Treitman RD: Ventilation for control of the work environment, 2nd edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. Google Scholar

PY - 2012/9/12

Y1 - 2012/9/12

N2 - Carbon monoxide (CO), a highly toxic gas, is produced during the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. In indoor environments, high CO concentrations constitute a serious occupational health hazard; this is especially true in the case of automotive repair shop (ARS) employees who are exposed on a daily basis to vehicle exhaust streams. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of CO production and dispersion inside an ARS facility. Detailed measurements of CO concentration, vehicle traffic and ventilation system velocities are performed; the obtained data are appropriately formulated to provide quantitative information for modelling purposes. A detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the developing transient flow-field is performed. The numerical results are validated using the experimental data; an overall good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved. Aiming to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical ventilation system, three alternative scenarios are investigated; it is shown that the utilization of a dynamic ventilation system may result in significant energy consumption benefits, while, at the same time, CO concentrations remain below the values suggested by current occupational health legislation. The obtained results may be utilized to assist the design of mechanical ventilation systems for ARS facilities.

AB - Carbon monoxide (CO), a highly toxic gas, is produced during the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. In indoor environments, high CO concentrations constitute a serious occupational health hazard; this is especially true in the case of automotive repair shop (ARS) employees who are exposed on a daily basis to vehicle exhaust streams. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of CO production and dispersion inside an ARS facility. Detailed measurements of CO concentration, vehicle traffic and ventilation system velocities are performed; the obtained data are appropriately formulated to provide quantitative information for modelling purposes. A detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the developing transient flow-field is performed. The numerical results are validated using the experimental data; an overall good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved. Aiming to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical ventilation system, three alternative scenarios are investigated; it is shown that the utilization of a dynamic ventilation system may result in significant energy consumption benefits, while, at the same time, CO concentrations remain below the values suggested by current occupational health legislation. The obtained results may be utilized to assist the design of mechanical ventilation systems for ARS facilities.

KW - CO

KW - Dispersion

KW - Automotive repair shop

KW - CFD

KW - Indoor air quality

KW - Occupational health

U2 - 10.1177/1420326X12458300

DO - 10.1177/1420326X12458300

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 750

EP - 765

JO - Indoor and Built Environment

T2 - Indoor and Built Environment

JF - Indoor and Built Environment

SN - 1420-326X

IS - 5

ER -