Exosomal Composition, Biogenesis and Profiling using Point-of-Care Diagnostics - Implications for Cardiovascular Disease

Denise Burtenshaw, Brian Regan, Kathryn Owen, David Collins, David McEneaney, Ian L Megson, Eileen Redmond, Paul Cahill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Arteriosclerosis is an important age-dependent disease that encompasses atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis (ISR), pulmonary hypertension, autologous bypass grafting and transplant arteriosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC)-like cells is a critical event in the pathology of arteriosclerotic disease leading to intimal-medial thickening (IMT), lipid retention and vessel remodelling. An important aspect in guiding clinical decision-making is the detection of biomarkers of subclinical arteriosclerosis and early cardiovascular risk. Crucially, relevant biomarkers need to be good indicators of injury which change in their circulating concentrations or structure, signalling functional disturbances. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized membraneous vesicles secreted by cells that contain numerous bioactive molecules and act as a means of intercellular communication between different cell populations to maintain tissue homeostasis, gene regulation in recipient cells and the adaptive response to stress. This review will focus on the emerging field of EV research in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and discuss how key EV signatures in liquid biopsies may act as early pathological indicators of adaptive lesion formation and arteriosclerotic disease progression. EV profiling has the potential to provide important clinical information to complement current cardiovascular diagnostic platforms that indicate or predict myocardial injury. Finally, the development of fitting devices to enable rapid and/or high-throughput exosomal analysis that require adapted processing procedures will be evaluated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Early online date1 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • exosome (vesicle)
  • atheroscelorsis
  • stem cell repair mechanisms
  • endothelial (dys)function
  • point of care diagnosis
  • Cell and Developmental Biology

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