Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise

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    Abstract

    Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (˙VO2max 55.9 _ 6 mL_kg&#x100000;1_min&#x100000;1), males (age 22 _ 2 years, height 181 _ 6 cm, weight 87 _ 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 _ 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time _ group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbylfree radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), _-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research.
    LanguageEnglish
    Number of pages14
    JournalAntioxidants
    Volume7
    Issue number70
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2018

    Fingerprint

    Oxidative stress
    Hordeum
    Dietary Supplements
    Poaceae
    DNA Damage
    Triticum
    Xanthophylls
    Comet Assay
    Tocopherols
    Lipid Peroxides
    DNA
    Electrophoresis
    Superoxide Dismutase
    Assays
    Oxidative Stress
    Antioxidants
    Gels
    Placebos
    Fatigue of materials
    Oxygen

    Keywords

    • reactive oxygen species
    • nutritional supplement
    • comet assay
    • oxidative stress

    Cite this

    @article{dfe883608da44ddc92859eff412ee65d,
    title = "Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise",
    abstract = "Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (˙VO2max 55.9 _ 6 mL_kg&#x100000;1_min&#x100000;1), males (age 22 _ 2 years, height 181 _ 6 cm, weight 87 _ 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 _ 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time _ group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7{\%} following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbylfree radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), _-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research.",
    keywords = "reactive oxygen species, nutritional supplement, comet assay, oxidative stress",
    author = "Josh Williamson and Hughes, {Ciara M} and Davison, {Gareth W}",
    note = "1. Elokda, A.S.; Nielsen, D.H. Effects of exercise training on the glutathione antioxidant system. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 2007, 14, 630–637. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 2. Radak, Z.; Marton, O.; Nagy, E.; Koltai, E.; Goto, S. The complex role of physical exercise and reactive oxygen species on brain. J. Sport Health Sci. 2013, 2, 87–93. [CrossRef] 3. Alfadda, A.A.; Sallam, R.M. Reactive oxygen species in health and disease. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 2012. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 4. Sweazea, K.L.; Johnston, C.S.; Knurick, J.; Bliss, C.D. Plant-based nutraceutical increases plasma catalase activity in healthy participants: A small double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, proof of concept trial. J. Diet. Suppl. 2017, 14, 200–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 5. Ji, L.L. Exercise, oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Am. J. Sports Med. 1996, 24, S20–S24. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 6. Jackson, M.J. Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise. Hanninen, O., Packer, L., Sen, C.K., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000; pp. 57–68. 7. Davison, G.W.; Hughes, C.M.; Bell, R.A. Exercise and Mononuclear Cell DNA Damage: The Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2005, 15, 480–492. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 8. Silva, N.A.; Lima, L.C.F. The Association between Physical Exercise and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production. J. Sports Med. Doping Stud. 2014, 5, 152. 9. Birben, E.; Sahiner, U.M.; Sackesen, C.; Erzurum, S.; Kalayci, O. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence. World Allergy Organ. J. 2012, 5, 9–19. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 10. Bouayed, J.; Bohn, T. Exogenous Antioxidants—Double-Edged Swords in Cellular Redox State. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2010, 3, 228–237. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 11. Sasazuki, S.; Hayashi, T.; Nakachi, K.; Tsubono, Y.; Okubo, S.; Hayashi, M.; Tsugane, S. Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2008, 78, 121–128. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 12. Niki, E. Role of Vitamin E as a Lipid-Soluble Peroxyl Radical Scavenger: In Vitro and In Vivo. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2014, 66, 3–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 13. Keong, C.C.; Singh, H.J.; Singh, R. Effects of Palm Vitamin E Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endurance Performance in the Heat. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2006, 5, 629–639. [PubMed] 14. Taghiyar, M.; Darvishi, L.; Askari, G.; Feizi, A.; Hariri, M.; Mashhadi, N.S.; Ghiasvand, R. The Effects of Vitamin C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Clinical Trial. Int. J. Prev Med. 2013, 4, S16–S23. [PubMed] 15. Morillas-Ruiz, J.M.; Villegas Garcia, J.A.; Lopez, F.J.; Vidal-Guevara, M.L.; Zafrilla, P. Effects of Polyphenolic Antioxidants on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress. Clin. Nutr. 2006, 25, 444–453. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 16. Lee, S.H.; Jew, S.S.; Chang, P.S.; Hong, I.J.; Hwang, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, K.T. Free radical scavenging effect and antioxidant activities of barley leaves. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2003, 12, 268–273. 17. Paul{\'i}ˇckov{\'a}, I.; Ehrenbergerov{\'a}, J.; Fiedlerov{\'a}, V.; Gabrovska, D.; Havlova, P.; Holasova, M.; Kop{\'a}ˇcek, J.; Ouhrabkov{\'a}, J.; Pinkrov{\'a}, J.; Rysov{\'a}, J.; et al. Evaluation of barley grass as a potential source of some nutritional substances. Czech J. Food Sci. 2007, 25, 65–72. [CrossRef] 18. Ghavami, L.; Goliaei, B.; Taghizadeh, B.; Nikoofar, A. Effects of barley -glucan on radiation damage in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Mutat. Res. 2014, 775–776, 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 19. Kulkami, S.D.; Tilak, J.C.; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.; Devasagayam, T.P.; Reddy, A.V. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum, L.) as a function of growth under different conditions. Phytother. Res. 2006, 20, 218–227. 20. Sethi, J.; Yadav, M.; Dahiya, K.; Sood, S.; Singh, V.; Bhattacharya, S.B. 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    year = "2018",
    month = "5",
    day = "21",
    doi = "10.3390/antiox7050070",
    language = "English",
    volume = "7",
    journal = "Antioxidants",
    issn = "2076-3921",
    publisher = "MDPI",
    number = "70",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise

    AU - Williamson, Josh

    AU - Hughes, Ciara M

    AU - Davison, Gareth W

    N1 - 1. Elokda, A.S.; Nielsen, D.H. Effects of exercise training on the glutathione antioxidant system. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 2007, 14, 630–637. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 2. Radak, Z.; Marton, O.; Nagy, E.; Koltai, E.; Goto, S. The complex role of physical exercise and reactive oxygen species on brain. J. Sport Health Sci. 2013, 2, 87–93. [CrossRef] 3. Alfadda, A.A.; Sallam, R.M. Reactive oxygen species in health and disease. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 2012. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 4. Sweazea, K.L.; Johnston, C.S.; Knurick, J.; Bliss, C.D. Plant-based nutraceutical increases plasma catalase activity in healthy participants: A small double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, proof of concept trial. J. Diet. Suppl. 2017, 14, 200–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 5. Ji, L.L. Exercise, oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Am. J. Sports Med. 1996, 24, S20–S24. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 6. Jackson, M.J. Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise. Hanninen, O., Packer, L., Sen, C.K., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000; pp. 57–68. 7. Davison, G.W.; Hughes, C.M.; Bell, R.A. Exercise and Mononuclear Cell DNA Damage: The Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2005, 15, 480–492. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 8. Silva, N.A.; Lima, L.C.F. The Association between Physical Exercise and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production. J. Sports Med. Doping Stud. 2014, 5, 152. 9. Birben, E.; Sahiner, U.M.; Sackesen, C.; Erzurum, S.; Kalayci, O. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence. World Allergy Organ. J. 2012, 5, 9–19. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 10. Bouayed, J.; Bohn, T. Exogenous Antioxidants—Double-Edged Swords in Cellular Redox State. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2010, 3, 228–237. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 11. Sasazuki, S.; Hayashi, T.; Nakachi, K.; Tsubono, Y.; Okubo, S.; Hayashi, M.; Tsugane, S. Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2008, 78, 121–128. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 12. Niki, E. Role of Vitamin E as a Lipid-Soluble Peroxyl Radical Scavenger: In Vitro and In Vivo. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2014, 66, 3–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 13. Keong, C.C.; Singh, H.J.; Singh, R. Effects of Palm Vitamin E Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endurance Performance in the Heat. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2006, 5, 629–639. [PubMed] 14. Taghiyar, M.; Darvishi, L.; Askari, G.; Feizi, A.; Hariri, M.; Mashhadi, N.S.; Ghiasvand, R. The Effects of Vitamin C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Clinical Trial. Int. J. Prev Med. 2013, 4, S16–S23. [PubMed] 15. Morillas-Ruiz, J.M.; Villegas Garcia, J.A.; Lopez, F.J.; Vidal-Guevara, M.L.; Zafrilla, P. Effects of Polyphenolic Antioxidants on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress. Clin. Nutr. 2006, 25, 444–453. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 16. Lee, S.H.; Jew, S.S.; Chang, P.S.; Hong, I.J.; Hwang, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, K.T. Free radical scavenging effect and antioxidant activities of barley leaves. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2003, 12, 268–273. 17. Paulíˇcková, I.; Ehrenbergerová, J.; Fiedlerová, V.; Gabrovska, D.; Havlova, P.; Holasova, M.; Kopáˇcek, J.; Ouhrabková, J.; Pinkrová, J.; Rysová, J.; et al. Evaluation of barley grass as a potential source of some nutritional substances. Czech J. Food Sci. 2007, 25, 65–72. [CrossRef] 18. Ghavami, L.; Goliaei, B.; Taghizadeh, B.; Nikoofar, A. Effects of barley -glucan on radiation damage in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Mutat. Res. 2014, 775–776, 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 19. Kulkami, S.D.; Tilak, J.C.; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.; Devasagayam, T.P.; Reddy, A.V. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum, L.) as a function of growth under different conditions. Phytother. Res. 2006, 20, 218–227. 20. Sethi, J.; Yadav, M.; Dahiya, K.; Sood, S.; Singh, V.; Bhattacharya, S.B. Antioxidant effect of Triticum aestivium (wheat grass) in high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in rabbits. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 2010, 32, 233–235. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 21. Simundic, A.; Cornes, M.; Grankvist, K.; Lippi, G.; Nybo, M. Standardization of collection requirements for fasting samples: For theWorking Group on Preanalytical Phase (WG-PA) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM). Clin. Chim. Acta. 2013, 432, 33–37. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 22. Boorsma, R.K.; Whitfeld, J.; Spriett, L.L. Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance of elite 1500-m runners. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc. 2014, 46, 2326–2334. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 23. Dill, D.B.; Costill, D.L. Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 1974, 37, 247–248. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 24. Dacie, J.V.; Lewis, S.M. Practical Haematology; Churchill: London, UK, 1968. 25. 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    PY - 2018/5/21

    Y1 - 2018/5/21

    N2 - Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (˙VO2max 55.9 _ 6 mL_kg&#x100000;1_min&#x100000;1), males (age 22 _ 2 years, height 181 _ 6 cm, weight 87 _ 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 _ 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time _ group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbylfree radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), _-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research.

    AB - Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (˙VO2max 55.9 _ 6 mL_kg&#x100000;1_min&#x100000;1), males (age 22 _ 2 years, height 181 _ 6 cm, weight 87 _ 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 _ 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time _ group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbylfree radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), _-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research.

    KW - reactive oxygen species

    KW - nutritional supplement

    KW - comet assay

    KW - oxidative stress

    U2 - 10.3390/antiox7050070

    DO - 10.3390/antiox7050070

    M3 - Article

    VL - 7

    JO - Antioxidants

    T2 - Antioxidants

    JF - Antioxidants

    SN - 2076-3921

    IS - 70

    ER -