Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed

A.N. Sharpley, P.J.A. Kleinman, P. Jordan, L. Bergstrom, A.L. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction followingimplementation of remedial strategies at fi eld scales. However,there has been little coordinated evaluation of best managementpractices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, andwhich work most eff ectively. Th us, it is still diffi cult to answerwith a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how longbefore we see a response and where would we expect to observethe greatest or least response? In cases where fi eld and watershedscales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P lossto be disconnected. We review case studies demonstratingthat potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competingsources of P at watershed scales that are not refl ected in fi eldmonitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales thatbuff er fi eld sources. To be successful, P-based mitigationstrategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder drivenprograms, and address the inherent complexity of all P sourceswithin watersheds.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1981-1988
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume38
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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watershed
phosphorus
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Sharpley, A.N. ; Kleinman, P.J.A. ; Jordan, P. ; Bergstrom, L. ; Allen, A.L. / Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed. In: Journal of Environmental Quality. 2009 ; Vol. 38. pp. 1981-1988.
@article{965e6c2d6d1d45f0bce33d530b08fd05,
title = "Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed",
abstract = "Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction followingimplementation of remedial strategies at fi eld scales. However,there has been little coordinated evaluation of best managementpractices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, andwhich work most eff ectively. Th us, it is still diffi cult to answerwith a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how longbefore we see a response and where would we expect to observethe greatest or least response? In cases where fi eld and watershedscales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P lossto be disconnected. We review case studies demonstratingthat potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competingsources of P at watershed scales that are not refl ected in fi eldmonitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales thatbuff er fi eld sources. To be successful, P-based mitigationstrategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder drivenprograms, and address the inherent complexity of all P sourceswithin watersheds.",
author = "A.N. Sharpley and P.J.A. Kleinman and P. Jordan and L. Bergstrom and A.L. Allen",
note = "Reference text: Arnscheidt, J., P. Jordan, S. Li, S. McCormick, R. McFaul, H. McGrogan, M. Neal, and J.T. Sims. 2007. Defi ning the sources of low fl ow phosphorus transfers in complex catchments. Sci. Total Environ. 382:1–13. Aronsson, H., G. Torstensson, and L. Bergstr{\"o}m. 2007. Leaching and crop uptake of N, P and K from organic and conventional cropping systems on a clay soil. Soil Use Manage. 23:71–81. Baker, D.B., and R.P. Richards. 2002. Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwest Ohio. J. Environ. Qual. 31:96–108. Boesch, D.F., R.B. Brinsfi eld, and R.E. Magnien. 2001. Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: Scientifi c understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture. J. Environ. Qual. 30:303–320. Chesapeake Bay Commission. 2007. Chesapeake Bay 2006: Health and restoration assessment. A report to the citizens of the Bay region. CBP/ TRS 284/07. EPA 903R–07002. Available at http://www.chesapeakebay. net/content/publications/cbp (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009). Chesapeake Bay Commission, Annapolis, MD. Council of European Communities. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the fi eld of water policy. Offi cial Journal L 327, p. 0001–0073 (22/12/2000). Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/water/ water-framework/index_en.html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Datar, R.P., R.M. Shenkman, B.G. Cateni, R.L. Huhnke, and R.S. Lewis. 2004. Fermentation of biomass-generated producer gas to ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 86:587–594. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2002. Code of good agricultural practice for the protection of water. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, England. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2003. Strategic review of diff use water pollution from agriculture. Discussion Document. Dep. for Environment, Food and Rural Aff airs, April 2003. Available at www. defra.gov.uk (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Devlin, D., K. Dhuyvetter, K. McVay, T. Kastens, C. Rice, K. Janssen, and G. Pierzynski. 2003. Water quality best management practices, eff ectiveness, and cost for reducing contaminant losses from cropland. MF-2572. Kansas State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. and Coop. Ext. Serv., Manhattan. Dinnes, D.L. 2004. Assessments of practices to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus nonpoint source pollution of Iowa’s surface waters. USDA, Agric. Res. Serv., Natl. Soil Tilth Lab., Ames, IA. Douglas, R.W., W. Menary, and P. Jordan. 2007. Phosphorus and sediment transfers in a grassland river catchment. Nutr. Cycling Agroecosyst. 77:199–212. Ebeling, A.M., L.G. Bundy, M.J. Powell, and T.W. Andraski. 2002. Dairy diet phosphorus eff ects in phosphorus losses in runoff from land-applied manure. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:284–291. Elobeid, A., S. Tokgoz, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, and C.E. Hart. 2006. Th e long-run impact of corn-based ethanol on the grain, oilseed and livestock sectors: A preliminary assessment. CARD Briefi ng Paper 06-BP 49. Center for Agric. and Rural Development, Ames, IA. Gitau, M.W., W.J. Gburek, and A.R. Jarrett. 2005. A tool for estimating best management practice eff ectiveness for phosphorus pollution control. J. Soil Water Conserv. 60:1–10. Friedman, S., R. Heimlich, B. Jackson, and E. McLellan. 2007. Farming for clean water: Innovative solutions to reduce Chesapeake Bay farm runoff . A report by the Center for Conservation Incentives, Environmental Defense, New York. Available at http://www.edf.org/documents/7373_ChesapeakeBayReport_ FarmingForCleanWater.pdf (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009). Heathwaite, A.L., A.N. Sharpley, and W.J. Gburek. 2000. Integrating phosphorus and nitrogen management at catchment scales. J. Environ. Qual. 29:158–166. Hilton, J., M. O’Hare, M.J. Bowes, and I. Jones. 2006. How green is my river? A new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers. Sci. Total Environ. 365:66–83. James, E.E. 2005. Factors infl uencing the adoption and non-adoption of the conservation reserve enhancement program in the Cannonsville Watershed, New York. M. Sc. Diss. thesis. Dep. of Agric. Economics and Rural Sociology, Th e Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Jarvie, H.P., C. Neal, and P.J.A. Withers. 2006. Sewage-effl uent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? Sci. Total Environ. 360:246–253. Johnes, P.J., R. Foy, D. Butterfi eld, and P.M. Haygarth. 2007. Landuse scenarios for England and Wales: Evaluation of management options to support ‘good ecological status’ in surface freshwaters. Soil Use Manage. 23:176–194. Jokela, W.E., J.C. Clausen, D.W. Meals, and A.N. Sharpley. 2004. Eff ectiveness of agricultural best management practices in reducing phosphorous loading to Lake Champlain. p. 39–53. In T.O. Manley et al. (ed.) Lake Champlain: Partnerships and research in the New Millennium. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Jordan, N., G. Boody, W. Broussard, J.D. Glover, D. Keeney, B.H. McCown, G. McIsaac, M. Muller, H. Murray, J. Neal, C. Pansing, R.E. Turner, K. Warner, and D. Wyse. 2007a. Sustainable development of the agricultural 1988 Journal of Environmental Quality • Volume 38 • September–October 2009 bio-economy. Science (Washington, DC) 316:1570–1571. Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2005a. Highresolution phosphorus transfers at the catchment scale: Th e hidden importance of non-storm transfers. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 9:685–691. Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2007b. Characterizing phosphorus transfers in rural catchments using a continuous bank-side analyzer. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11:372–381. Jordan, P., W. Menary, K. Daly, G. Kiely, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, and R. Moles. 2005b. Patterns and processes of phosphorus transfer from Irish grassland soils to rivers–Integration of laboratory and catchment studies. J. Hydrol. 304:20–34. Kleinman, P.J.A., A.L. Allen, B.A. Needelman, A.N. Sharpley, P.A. Vadas, L.S. Saporito, G.J. Folmar, and R.B. Bryant. 2007. Dynamics of phosphorus transfers from heavily manured coastal plain soils to drainage ditches. J. Soil Water Conserv. 62:225–235. Kronvang, B., M. Bechmann, H. Lundekvam, H. Behrendt, G.H. Rub{\ae}k, O.F. Schoumans, N. Syversen, H.E. Andersen, and C.C. Hoff mann. 2005. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins: Eff ects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures. J. Environ. Qual. 34:2129–2144. Kyllmar, K., C. Carlsson, A. Gustafson, B. Ul{\'e}n, and H. Johnsson. 2006. Nutrient discharge from small agricultural catchments in Sweden. Characterisation and trends. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 115:15–26. Lawrence, J.D. 2006. Expansion in the ethanol industry and its eff ect on the livestock industry. (http://www.extension.iastate.edu/ag/LawrencePresent. indd.pdf) (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. McDowell, R.W., B.J.F. Biggs, A.N. Sharpley, and L. Nguyen. 2004. Connecting phosphorus loss from agricultural landscapes to surface water quality. Chem. Ecol. 20:1–40. Maguire, R.O., D.A. Crouse, and S.C. Hodges. 2007. Diet modifi cation to reduce phosphorus surpluses: A mass balance approach. J. Environ. Qual. 36:1235–1240. Meals, D.W. 1990. LaPlatte River watershed water quality monitoring and analysis program: Comprehensive fi nal report. Program Rep. 12. Vermont Water Resour. Res. Center, Univ. Vermont, Burlington. Moosmann, L., B. M{\"u}ller, R. G{\"a}chter, and A. W{\"u}est. 2005. Trend-orientated sampling strategy and estimation of soluble reactive phosphorus loads in streams. Water Resour. Res. 41:W01020, doi:10.1029/2004WR003539. National Academy of Sciences. 2007a. Mississippi River water quality and the Clean Water Act: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 4 pages. Available at http://dels.nas. edu/dels/rpt_briefs/biofuels_brief_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed Jan. 2009). National Academy of Sciences. 2007b. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States. Available at http://dels.nas.edu/dels/ rpt_briefs/miss_river_cwa_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Parrish, D.J., and J.H. Fike. 2005. Th e biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 24:423–459. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, and A.N. Sharpley. 2000. Critical source area controls on water quality in an agricultural watershed located in the Chesapeake Basin. Ecol. Eng. 14:325–335. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and R.R. Schnabel. 1996. Flow and nutrient export patterns for an agricultural hill-land watershed. Water Resour. Res. 32:1795–1804. Reinhardt, M., R. G{\"a}chter, B. Wehrli, and B. M{\"u}ller. 2005. Phosphorus retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage waters. J. Environ. Qual. 34:1251–1259. Schoumans, O.F., and W.J. Chardon. 2003. Risk assessment methodologies for predicting phosphorus losses. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 166:403–408. Sharpley, A.N., and S. Rekolainen. 1997. Phosphorus in agriculture and its environmental implications. p. 1–54. In H.Tunney et al. (ed.) Phosphorus loss from soil to water. CAB International Press, Cambridge, England. Sharpley, A.N., J.P. Schmidt, and L. Hergert. 2006. Nutrient management practices. p. 149–193. In M. Schnepf and C. Cox (ed.) Environmental benefi ts of conservation on cropland: Th e status of our knowledge. Soc. of Soil and Water Conserv., Ankeny, IA. Sharpley, A.N., and S.J. Smith. 1994. Wheat tillage and water quality in the Southern Plains. Soil Tillage Res. 30:33–38. Sharpley, A.N., S.J. Smith, J.A. Zollweg, and G.A. Coleman. 1996. 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R&D Tech. Rep. P2–261/09/TR. Environment Agency, Bristol, England.",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.2134/jeq2008.0056",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "1981--1988",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Quality",
issn = "0047-2425",

}

Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed. / Sharpley, A.N.; Kleinman, P.J.A.; Jordan, P.; Bergstrom, L.; Allen, A.L.

In: Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 38, 2009, p. 1981-1988.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluating the Success of Phosphorus Management from Field to Watershed

AU - Sharpley, A.N.

AU - Kleinman, P.J.A.

AU - Jordan, P.

AU - Bergstrom, L.

AU - Allen, A.L.

N1 - Reference text: Arnscheidt, J., P. Jordan, S. Li, S. McCormick, R. McFaul, H. McGrogan, M. Neal, and J.T. Sims. 2007. Defi ning the sources of low fl ow phosphorus transfers in complex catchments. Sci. Total Environ. 382:1–13. Aronsson, H., G. Torstensson, and L. Bergström. 2007. Leaching and crop uptake of N, P and K from organic and conventional cropping systems on a clay soil. Soil Use Manage. 23:71–81. Baker, D.B., and R.P. Richards. 2002. Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwest Ohio. J. Environ. Qual. 31:96–108. Boesch, D.F., R.B. Brinsfi eld, and R.E. Magnien. 2001. Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: Scientifi c understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture. J. Environ. Qual. 30:303–320. Chesapeake Bay Commission. 2007. Chesapeake Bay 2006: Health and restoration assessment. A report to the citizens of the Bay region. CBP/ TRS 284/07. EPA 903R–07002. Available at http://www.chesapeakebay. net/content/publications/cbp (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009). Chesapeake Bay Commission, Annapolis, MD. Council of European Communities. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the fi eld of water policy. Offi cial Journal L 327, p. 0001–0073 (22/12/2000). Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/water/ water-framework/index_en.html (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Datar, R.P., R.M. Shenkman, B.G. Cateni, R.L. Huhnke, and R.S. Lewis. 2004. Fermentation of biomass-generated producer gas to ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 86:587–594. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2002. Code of good agricultural practice for the protection of water. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, England. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Aff airs. 2003. Strategic review of diff use water pollution from agriculture. Discussion Document. Dep. for Environment, Food and Rural Aff airs, April 2003. Available at www. defra.gov.uk (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Devlin, D., K. Dhuyvetter, K. McVay, T. Kastens, C. Rice, K. Janssen, and G. Pierzynski. 2003. Water quality best management practices, eff ectiveness, and cost for reducing contaminant losses from cropland. MF-2572. Kansas State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. and Coop. Ext. Serv., Manhattan. Dinnes, D.L. 2004. Assessments of practices to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus nonpoint source pollution of Iowa’s surface waters. USDA, Agric. Res. Serv., Natl. Soil Tilth Lab., Ames, IA. Douglas, R.W., W. Menary, and P. Jordan. 2007. Phosphorus and sediment transfers in a grassland river catchment. Nutr. Cycling Agroecosyst. 77:199–212. Ebeling, A.M., L.G. Bundy, M.J. Powell, and T.W. Andraski. 2002. Dairy diet phosphorus eff ects in phosphorus losses in runoff from land-applied manure. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:284–291. Elobeid, A., S. Tokgoz, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, and C.E. Hart. 2006. Th e long-run impact of corn-based ethanol on the grain, oilseed and livestock sectors: A preliminary assessment. CARD Briefi ng Paper 06-BP 49. Center for Agric. and Rural Development, Ames, IA. Gitau, M.W., W.J. Gburek, and A.R. Jarrett. 2005. A tool for estimating best management practice eff ectiveness for phosphorus pollution control. J. Soil Water Conserv. 60:1–10. Friedman, S., R. Heimlich, B. Jackson, and E. McLellan. 2007. Farming for clean water: Innovative solutions to reduce Chesapeake Bay farm runoff . A report by the Center for Conservation Incentives, Environmental Defense, New York. Available at http://www.edf.org/documents/7373_ChesapeakeBayReport_ FarmingForCleanWater.pdf (verifi ed 2 Feb. 2009). Heathwaite, A.L., A.N. Sharpley, and W.J. Gburek. 2000. Integrating phosphorus and nitrogen management at catchment scales. J. Environ. Qual. 29:158–166. Hilton, J., M. O’Hare, M.J. Bowes, and I. Jones. 2006. How green is my river? A new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers. Sci. Total Environ. 365:66–83. James, E.E. 2005. Factors infl uencing the adoption and non-adoption of the conservation reserve enhancement program in the Cannonsville Watershed, New York. M. Sc. Diss. thesis. Dep. of Agric. Economics and Rural Sociology, Th e Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Jarvie, H.P., C. Neal, and P.J.A. Withers. 2006. Sewage-effl uent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? Sci. Total Environ. 360:246–253. Johnes, P.J., R. Foy, D. Butterfi eld, and P.M. Haygarth. 2007. Landuse scenarios for England and Wales: Evaluation of management options to support ‘good ecological status’ in surface freshwaters. Soil Use Manage. 23:176–194. Jokela, W.E., J.C. Clausen, D.W. Meals, and A.N. Sharpley. 2004. Eff ectiveness of agricultural best management practices in reducing phosphorous loading to Lake Champlain. p. 39–53. In T.O. Manley et al. (ed.) Lake Champlain: Partnerships and research in the New Millennium. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Jordan, N., G. Boody, W. Broussard, J.D. Glover, D. Keeney, B.H. McCown, G. McIsaac, M. Muller, H. Murray, J. Neal, C. Pansing, R.E. Turner, K. Warner, and D. Wyse. 2007a. Sustainable development of the agricultural 1988 Journal of Environmental Quality • Volume 38 • September–October 2009 bio-economy. Science (Washington, DC) 316:1570–1571. Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2005a. Highresolution phosphorus transfers at the catchment scale: Th e hidden importance of non-storm transfers. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 9:685–691. Jordan, P., J. Arnscheidt, H. McGrogan, and S. McCormick. 2007b. Characterizing phosphorus transfers in rural catchments using a continuous bank-side analyzer. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11:372–381. Jordan, P., W. Menary, K. Daly, G. Kiely, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, and R. Moles. 2005b. Patterns and processes of phosphorus transfer from Irish grassland soils to rivers–Integration of laboratory and catchment studies. J. Hydrol. 304:20–34. Kleinman, P.J.A., A.L. Allen, B.A. Needelman, A.N. Sharpley, P.A. Vadas, L.S. Saporito, G.J. Folmar, and R.B. Bryant. 2007. Dynamics of phosphorus transfers from heavily manured coastal plain soils to drainage ditches. J. Soil Water Conserv. 62:225–235. Kronvang, B., M. Bechmann, H. Lundekvam, H. Behrendt, G.H. Rubæk, O.F. Schoumans, N. Syversen, H.E. Andersen, and C.C. Hoff mann. 2005. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins: Eff ects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures. J. Environ. Qual. 34:2129–2144. Kyllmar, K., C. Carlsson, A. Gustafson, B. Ulén, and H. Johnsson. 2006. Nutrient discharge from small agricultural catchments in Sweden. Characterisation and trends. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 115:15–26. Lawrence, J.D. 2006. Expansion in the ethanol industry and its eff ect on the livestock industry. (http://www.extension.iastate.edu/ag/LawrencePresent. indd.pdf) (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. McDowell, R.W., B.J.F. Biggs, A.N. Sharpley, and L. Nguyen. 2004. Connecting phosphorus loss from agricultural landscapes to surface water quality. Chem. Ecol. 20:1–40. Maguire, R.O., D.A. Crouse, and S.C. Hodges. 2007. Diet modifi cation to reduce phosphorus surpluses: A mass balance approach. J. Environ. Qual. 36:1235–1240. Meals, D.W. 1990. LaPlatte River watershed water quality monitoring and analysis program: Comprehensive fi nal report. Program Rep. 12. Vermont Water Resour. Res. Center, Univ. Vermont, Burlington. Moosmann, L., B. Müller, R. Gächter, and A. Wüest. 2005. Trend-orientated sampling strategy and estimation of soluble reactive phosphorus loads in streams. Water Resour. Res. 41:W01020, doi:10.1029/2004WR003539. National Academy of Sciences. 2007a. Mississippi River water quality and the Clean Water Act: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 4 pages. Available at http://dels.nas. edu/dels/rpt_briefs/biofuels_brief_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed Jan. 2009). National Academy of Sciences. 2007b. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States. Available at http://dels.nas.edu/dels/ rpt_briefs/miss_river_cwa_fi nal.pdf (verifi ed 28 Jan. 2009). National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Parrish, D.J., and J.H. Fike. 2005. Th e biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 24:423–459. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, and A.N. Sharpley. 2000. Critical source area controls on water quality in an agricultural watershed located in the Chesapeake Basin. Ecol. Eng. 14:325–335. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and R.R. Schnabel. 1996. Flow and nutrient export patterns for an agricultural hill-land watershed. Water Resour. Res. 32:1795–1804. Reinhardt, M., R. Gächter, B. Wehrli, and B. Müller. 2005. 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PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction followingimplementation of remedial strategies at fi eld scales. However,there has been little coordinated evaluation of best managementpractices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, andwhich work most eff ectively. Th us, it is still diffi cult to answerwith a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how longbefore we see a response and where would we expect to observethe greatest or least response? In cases where fi eld and watershedscales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P lossto be disconnected. We review case studies demonstratingthat potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competingsources of P at watershed scales that are not refl ected in fi eldmonitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales thatbuff er fi eld sources. To be successful, P-based mitigationstrategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder drivenprograms, and address the inherent complexity of all P sourceswithin watersheds.

AB - Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction followingimplementation of remedial strategies at fi eld scales. However,there has been little coordinated evaluation of best managementpractices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, andwhich work most eff ectively. Th us, it is still diffi cult to answerwith a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how longbefore we see a response and where would we expect to observethe greatest or least response? In cases where fi eld and watershedscales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P lossto be disconnected. We review case studies demonstratingthat potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competingsources of P at watershed scales that are not refl ected in fi eldmonitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales thatbuff er fi eld sources. To be successful, P-based mitigationstrategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder drivenprograms, and address the inherent complexity of all P sourceswithin watersheds.

U2 - 10.2134/jeq2008.0056

DO - 10.2134/jeq2008.0056

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 1981

EP - 1988

JO - Journal of Environmental Quality

T2 - Journal of Environmental Quality

JF - Journal of Environmental Quality

SN - 0047-2425

ER -