Evacuation Response Behaviour in Unannounced Evacuation of Licensed Premises

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An understanding of the behaviour of individuals and groups during evacuation is key to thedevelopment of evacuation scenarios as part of an engineering design solution. Furthermore,it is important that engineers have reliable and accurate data on pre-evacuation times andmovement for use in time based evacuation analysis. This paper presents, for the first time inthe published literature, a detailed analysis of an unannounced evacuation of licensedpremises and provides important data and understanding regarding behaviour for use in firesafety engineering design and evacuation modelling. Findings on recognition times, responsebehaviours, pre-evacuation times and final exit flows for a function room and lounge bar inthe licenced property are provided. The results suggest that the evacuation time in the loungebar was characterised by generally longer pre-evacuation times and relatively shortermovement times, whereas the evacuation time in the more densely populated function roomwas characterised by shorter pre-evacuation times but extended flow times. The paperhighlights important design and management issues with respect to the evacuation of personsunder the influence of alcohol and considers the impact of staff intervention through directedvoice communications. The variation in response behaviours between the two separate areasof the premises are highlighted and discussed.
LanguageEnglish
JournalFire and Materials
VolumeNA
Early online date6 Jun 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2017

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Alcohols
Engineers
Communication

Keywords

  • evacuation
  • nightclub
  • alcohol
  • response behaviour
  • bar/nightclub
  • engineering data

Cite this

@article{b7e0627e2d67497d8f986d0c12f78c05,
title = "Evacuation Response Behaviour in Unannounced Evacuation of Licensed Premises",
abstract = "An understanding of the behaviour of individuals and groups during evacuation is key to thedevelopment of evacuation scenarios as part of an engineering design solution. Furthermore,it is important that engineers have reliable and accurate data on pre-evacuation times andmovement for use in time based evacuation analysis. This paper presents, for the first time inthe published literature, a detailed analysis of an unannounced evacuation of licensedpremises and provides important data and understanding regarding behaviour for use in firesafety engineering design and evacuation modelling. Findings on recognition times, responsebehaviours, pre-evacuation times and final exit flows for a function room and lounge bar inthe licenced property are provided. The results suggest that the evacuation time in the loungebar was characterised by generally longer pre-evacuation times and relatively shortermovement times, whereas the evacuation time in the more densely populated function roomwas characterised by shorter pre-evacuation times but extended flow times. The paperhighlights important design and management issues with respect to the evacuation of personsunder the influence of alcohol and considers the impact of staff intervention through directedvoice communications. The variation in response behaviours between the two separate areasof the premises are highlighted and discussed.",
keywords = "evacuation, nightclub, alcohol, response behaviour, bar/nightclub, engineering data",
author = "Karen Boyce and Nigel McConnell and Jim Shields",
note = "Reference text: 1. National Fire Protection Association. Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire Report, Boston, National Fire Protection Association, 1943. 2. Best RL.Reconstruction of a Tragedy: The Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire, Southgate,Kentucky, May 28, 1977. An analysis of the Development and Spread of Fire from the Room of Origin to the Cabaret Room, Boston, National Fire Protection Association. 3. Keene R. Tribunal of inquiry on the fire at the Stardust, Artane, Dublin on 14 February1981. Government publications. Pl.853. Dublin: Stationery Office, 1982. 4. Levy CJ. Toll Stirs Anger in Russian Nightclub Fire. New York Times, [online] 5 December, 2009. Available at: <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/world/europe/06russia.html?_r=0> [Accessed 15 July 2015]. 5. Grosshandler WL, Bryner NP, Madryskowski D, and Kuntz K. Report of the Technical Investigation of The Station Nightclub Fire (NIST NCSTAR 2), Volume 1 and Volume 2, National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, 2005. 6. Duval RF. NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires, National Fire Protection Association,2006. 7. Duffy G. Scores killed in nightclub fire in Santa Maria, Brazil. BBC, [online] 28 January, 2003. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-21220308 [Accessed 15 July 2015]. 8. Johnson NR. Panic and the Breakdown of Social Order: Popular Myth, Social Theory, Empirical Evidence. Sociological Focus, 1987; 20, pp. 171–83. 9. Feinberg WE, Norris RJ. Primary Group Size and Fatality Risk in a Fire Disaster. Pp. 11–22 In Human Behaviour in Fire, Understanding Human Behaviour for Better Fire Safety Design, Second International Symposium, 2001. London: Interscience. 10. Johnson, NR, Feinberg WE, and Johnson DM. Microstructure and panic: The impact of social bonds on individual action in collective flight from the Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire. In Dynes RR, & Tierney KJ (Eds.) Disasters, collective behaviour and social organization (pp. 168-189). Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1994. 11. Aguirre BE, Torres MR, Gill KB and Hotchkiss HL. Normative collective behaviour in the station building fire. Social Science Quarterly, 2011; 92(1), pp. 100–118. 12. Fahy RF, Proulx G, and Flynn J. The Station Nightclub Fire – An analysis of witness statements, Fire Safety Science Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium, International Association Fire Safety Science, 2011: pp 197-209. 13. British Standards Institution. PD 7974-6:2004, The application of fire safety engineering principles to fire safety design of buildings. Human factors. Life safety strategies. Occupant Evacuation, Behaviour and Condition (Sub-system 6), British Standards Institution, London, UK., 2004. 14. Gwynne SMV, Boyce KE. Chapter 64 Engineering Data in Hurley MJ, Gottuk DT, Hall Jr, JR, Harada K, Kuligowski ED, Puchovsky M, Torero JL, Watts Jr, JM, Wieczorek CJ (Eds.) SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 5th Edition, Springer. 2015 ISBN 978-1-4939-2565-0. 15. Bradley G (1997), The Characterisation and Escape Behaviour of Occupants of Licensed Premises, Internal Report, University of Ulster. 16. Galea ER, Sharp G, Sauter M, Deere S, Filippidis L. Investigating the Impact of Culture on Evacuation Behaviour – A Polish Data Set, Proceedings of 5th International Symposium Human Behaviour in Fire, Downing College Cambridge 19-21 September 2012, Interscience Communications, pp 62-73. 17. Approved Document B, The Building Regulations 2010, Volume 2 - Buildings Other than Dwelling Houses, HM Government, 2006.",
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Evacuation Response Behaviour in Unannounced Evacuation of Licensed Premises. / Boyce, Karen; McConnell, Nigel; Shields, Jim.

In: Fire and Materials, Vol. NA, 31.08.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - McConnell, Nigel

AU - Shields, Jim

N1 - Reference text: 1. National Fire Protection Association. Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire Report, Boston, National Fire Protection Association, 1943. 2. Best RL.Reconstruction of a Tragedy: The Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire, Southgate,Kentucky, May 28, 1977. An analysis of the Development and Spread of Fire from the Room of Origin to the Cabaret Room, Boston, National Fire Protection Association. 3. Keene R. Tribunal of inquiry on the fire at the Stardust, Artane, Dublin on 14 February1981. Government publications. Pl.853. Dublin: Stationery Office, 1982. 4. Levy CJ. Toll Stirs Anger in Russian Nightclub Fire. New York Times, [online] 5 December, 2009. Available at: <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/world/europe/06russia.html?_r=0> [Accessed 15 July 2015]. 5. Grosshandler WL, Bryner NP, Madryskowski D, and Kuntz K. Report of the Technical Investigation of The Station Nightclub Fire (NIST NCSTAR 2), Volume 1 and Volume 2, National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, 2005. 6. Duval RF. NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires, National Fire Protection Association,2006. 7. Duffy G. Scores killed in nightclub fire in Santa Maria, Brazil. BBC, [online] 28 January, 2003. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-21220308 [Accessed 15 July 2015]. 8. Johnson NR. Panic and the Breakdown of Social Order: Popular Myth, Social Theory, Empirical Evidence. Sociological Focus, 1987; 20, pp. 171–83. 9. Feinberg WE, Norris RJ. Primary Group Size and Fatality Risk in a Fire Disaster. Pp. 11–22 In Human Behaviour in Fire, Understanding Human Behaviour for Better Fire Safety Design, Second International Symposium, 2001. London: Interscience. 10. Johnson, NR, Feinberg WE, and Johnson DM. Microstructure and panic: The impact of social bonds on individual action in collective flight from the Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire. In Dynes RR, & Tierney KJ (Eds.) Disasters, collective behaviour and social organization (pp. 168-189). Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1994. 11. Aguirre BE, Torres MR, Gill KB and Hotchkiss HL. Normative collective behaviour in the station building fire. Social Science Quarterly, 2011; 92(1), pp. 100–118. 12. Fahy RF, Proulx G, and Flynn J. The Station Nightclub Fire – An analysis of witness statements, Fire Safety Science Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium, International Association Fire Safety Science, 2011: pp 197-209. 13. British Standards Institution. PD 7974-6:2004, The application of fire safety engineering principles to fire safety design of buildings. Human factors. Life safety strategies. Occupant Evacuation, Behaviour and Condition (Sub-system 6), British Standards Institution, London, UK., 2004. 14. Gwynne SMV, Boyce KE. Chapter 64 Engineering Data in Hurley MJ, Gottuk DT, Hall Jr, JR, Harada K, Kuligowski ED, Puchovsky M, Torero JL, Watts Jr, JM, Wieczorek CJ (Eds.) SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 5th Edition, Springer. 2015 ISBN 978-1-4939-2565-0. 15. Bradley G (1997), The Characterisation and Escape Behaviour of Occupants of Licensed Premises, Internal Report, University of Ulster. 16. Galea ER, Sharp G, Sauter M, Deere S, Filippidis L. Investigating the Impact of Culture on Evacuation Behaviour – A Polish Data Set, Proceedings of 5th International Symposium Human Behaviour in Fire, Downing College Cambridge 19-21 September 2012, Interscience Communications, pp 62-73. 17. Approved Document B, The Building Regulations 2010, Volume 2 - Buildings Other than Dwelling Houses, HM Government, 2006.

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Y1 - 2017/8/31

N2 - An understanding of the behaviour of individuals and groups during evacuation is key to thedevelopment of evacuation scenarios as part of an engineering design solution. Furthermore,it is important that engineers have reliable and accurate data on pre-evacuation times andmovement for use in time based evacuation analysis. This paper presents, for the first time inthe published literature, a detailed analysis of an unannounced evacuation of licensedpremises and provides important data and understanding regarding behaviour for use in firesafety engineering design and evacuation modelling. Findings on recognition times, responsebehaviours, pre-evacuation times and final exit flows for a function room and lounge bar inthe licenced property are provided. The results suggest that the evacuation time in the loungebar was characterised by generally longer pre-evacuation times and relatively shortermovement times, whereas the evacuation time in the more densely populated function roomwas characterised by shorter pre-evacuation times but extended flow times. The paperhighlights important design and management issues with respect to the evacuation of personsunder the influence of alcohol and considers the impact of staff intervention through directedvoice communications. The variation in response behaviours between the two separate areasof the premises are highlighted and discussed.

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KW - nightclub

KW - alcohol

KW - response behaviour

KW - bar/nightclub

KW - engineering data

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