Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults

Kevin D. Cashman, Tom R. Hill, Alice J. Lucey, Nicola Taylor, Kelly M. Seamans, Siobhan Muldowney, Anthony P. FitzGerald, Albert Flynn, Maria S. Barnes, Geraldine Horigan, Maxine P. Bonham, Emeir Duffy, JJ Strain, Julie Wallace, Mairead Kiely

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Abstract

Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation among international dietary recommendations for vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (ie, 25, 37.5, 50, and 80 nmol/L) during wintertime after adjustment for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 22-wk intervention study was conducted in men and women aged 20-40 y (n = 238) by using different supplemental doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g/d) of vitamin D 3 throughout the winter. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunoassay at baseline (October 2006) and endpoint (March 2007). Results: There were clear dose-related increments (P < 0.0001) in serum 25(OH) D with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3. The slope of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) D was 1.96 nmol.L-1.mu g(-1) intake. The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.7 mu g/d. This intake ranged from 7.2 mu g/d in those who enjoyed sunshine exposure, 8.8 mu g/d in those who sometimes had sun exposure, and 12.3 mu g/d in those who avoided sunshine. Vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 19.9, 28.0, and 41.1 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: The range of vitamin D intakes required to ensure maintenance of wintertime vitamin D status [as defined by incremental cutoffs of serum 25(OH) D] in the vast majority (>97.5%) of 20-40-y-old adults, considering a variety of sun exposure preferences, is between 7.2 and 41.1 mu g/d. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1535-42.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1535-1542
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume88
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008

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Nutritional Requirements
Vitamin D
Sunlight
Solar System
Serum
Cholecalciferol
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Placebos
Maintenance
Diet

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Cashman, K. D., Hill, T. R., Lucey, A. J., Taylor, N., Seamans, K. M., Muldowney, S., ... Kiely, M. (2008). Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(6), 1535-1542. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26594
Cashman, Kevin D. ; Hill, Tom R. ; Lucey, Alice J. ; Taylor, Nicola ; Seamans, Kelly M. ; Muldowney, Siobhan ; FitzGerald, Anthony P. ; Flynn, Albert ; Barnes, Maria S. ; Horigan, Geraldine ; Bonham, Maxine P. ; Duffy, Emeir ; Strain, JJ ; Wallace, Julie ; Kiely, Mairead. / Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008 ; Vol. 88, No. 6. pp. 1535-1542.
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abstract = "Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation among international dietary recommendations for vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (ie, 25, 37.5, 50, and 80 nmol/L) during wintertime after adjustment for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 22-wk intervention study was conducted in men and women aged 20-40 y (n = 238) by using different supplemental doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g/d) of vitamin D 3 throughout the winter. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunoassay at baseline (October 2006) and endpoint (March 2007). Results: There were clear dose-related increments (P < 0.0001) in serum 25(OH) D with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3. The slope of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) D was 1.96 nmol.L-1.mu g(-1) intake. The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >25 nmol/L in 97.5{\%} of the sample was 8.7 mu g/d. This intake ranged from 7.2 mu g/d in those who enjoyed sunshine exposure, 8.8 mu g/d in those who sometimes had sun exposure, and 12.3 mu g/d in those who avoided sunshine. Vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5{\%} of the sample were 19.9, 28.0, and 41.1 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: The range of vitamin D intakes required to ensure maintenance of wintertime vitamin D status [as defined by incremental cutoffs of serum 25(OH) D] in the vast majority (>97.5{\%}) of 20-40-y-old adults, considering a variety of sun exposure preferences, is between 7.2 and 41.1 mu g/d. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1535-42.",
author = "Cashman, {Kevin D.} and Hill, {Tom R.} and Lucey, {Alice J.} and Nicola Taylor and Seamans, {Kelly M.} and Siobhan Muldowney and FitzGerald, {Anthony P.} and Albert Flynn and Barnes, {Maria S.} and Geraldine Horigan and Bonham, {Maxine P.} and Emeir Duffy and JJ Strain and Julie Wallace and Mairead Kiely",
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Cashman, KD, Hill, TR, Lucey, AJ, Taylor, N, Seamans, KM, Muldowney, S, FitzGerald, AP, Flynn, A, Barnes, MS, Horigan, G, Bonham, MP, Duffy, E, Strain, JJ, Wallace, J & Kiely, M 2008, 'Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1535-1542. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26594

Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults. / Cashman, Kevin D.; Hill, Tom R.; Lucey, Alice J.; Taylor, Nicola; Seamans, Kelly M.; Muldowney, Siobhan; FitzGerald, Anthony P.; Flynn, Albert; Barnes, Maria S.; Horigan, Geraldine; Bonham, Maxine P.; Duffy, Emeir; Strain, JJ; Wallace, Julie; Kiely, Mairead.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 6, 12.2008, p. 1535-1542.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults

AU - Cashman, Kevin D.

AU - Hill, Tom R.

AU - Lucey, Alice J.

AU - Taylor, Nicola

AU - Seamans, Kelly M.

AU - Muldowney, Siobhan

AU - FitzGerald, Anthony P.

AU - Flynn, Albert

AU - Barnes, Maria S.

AU - Horigan, Geraldine

AU - Bonham, Maxine P.

AU - Duffy, Emeir

AU - Strain, JJ

AU - Wallace, Julie

AU - Kiely, Mairead

PY - 2008/12

Y1 - 2008/12

N2 - Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation among international dietary recommendations for vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (ie, 25, 37.5, 50, and 80 nmol/L) during wintertime after adjustment for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 22-wk intervention study was conducted in men and women aged 20-40 y (n = 238) by using different supplemental doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g/d) of vitamin D 3 throughout the winter. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunoassay at baseline (October 2006) and endpoint (March 2007). Results: There were clear dose-related increments (P < 0.0001) in serum 25(OH) D with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3. The slope of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) D was 1.96 nmol.L-1.mu g(-1) intake. The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.7 mu g/d. This intake ranged from 7.2 mu g/d in those who enjoyed sunshine exposure, 8.8 mu g/d in those who sometimes had sun exposure, and 12.3 mu g/d in those who avoided sunshine. Vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 19.9, 28.0, and 41.1 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: The range of vitamin D intakes required to ensure maintenance of wintertime vitamin D status [as defined by incremental cutoffs of serum 25(OH) D] in the vast majority (>97.5%) of 20-40-y-old adults, considering a variety of sun exposure preferences, is between 7.2 and 41.1 mu g/d. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1535-42.

AB - Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation among international dietary recommendations for vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (ie, 25, 37.5, 50, and 80 nmol/L) during wintertime after adjustment for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 22-wk intervention study was conducted in men and women aged 20-40 y (n = 238) by using different supplemental doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g/d) of vitamin D 3 throughout the winter. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunoassay at baseline (October 2006) and endpoint (March 2007). Results: There were clear dose-related increments (P < 0.0001) in serum 25(OH) D with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3. The slope of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) D was 1.96 nmol.L-1.mu g(-1) intake. The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.7 mu g/d. This intake ranged from 7.2 mu g/d in those who enjoyed sunshine exposure, 8.8 mu g/d in those who sometimes had sun exposure, and 12.3 mu g/d in those who avoided sunshine. Vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH) D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 19.9, 28.0, and 41.1 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: The range of vitamin D intakes required to ensure maintenance of wintertime vitamin D status [as defined by incremental cutoffs of serum 25(OH) D] in the vast majority (>97.5%) of 20-40-y-old adults, considering a variety of sun exposure preferences, is between 7.2 and 41.1 mu g/d. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1535-42.

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DO - 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26594

M3 - Article

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JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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Cashman KD, Hill TR, Lucey AJ, Taylor N, Seamans KM, Muldowney S et al. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008 Dec;88(6):1535-1542. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26594