Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age

Kevin D. Cashman, Julie Wallace, Geraldine Horigan, Tom R. Hill, Maria S. Barnes, Alice J. Lucey, Maxine P. Bonham, Nicola Taylor, Emeir M. Duffy, Kelly Seamans, Siobhan Muldowney, Anthony P. FitzGerald, Albert Flynn, JJ Strain, Mairead Kiely

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

115 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Older adults may be more prone to developing vitamin D deficiency than younger adults. Dietary requirements for vitamin D in older adults are based on limited evidence. Objective: The objective was to establish the dietary intake of vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above various cutoffs between 25 and 80 nmol/L during wintertime, which accounted for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 22-wk intervention was conducted in men and women aged >= 64 y (n = 225) at supplemental levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g vitamin D3/d from October 2007 to March 2008. Results: Clear dose-related increments (P 0.0001) in serum 25(OH)D were observed with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3 intakes. The slope of the relation between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was 1.97 nmol . L-1 . mu g intake(-1). The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.6 mu g/d. Intakes were 7.9 and 11.4 mu g/d in those who reported a minimum of 15 min daily summer sunshine exposure or less, respectively. The intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 17.2, 24.7, and 38.7 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: To ensure that the vitamin D requirement is met by the vast majority (>97.5%) of adults aged >= 64 y during winter, between 7.9 and 42.8 mu g vitamin D/d is required, depending on summer sun exposure and the threshold of adequacy of 25(OH)D. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN20236112 as ISRCTN registration no. ISRCTN20236112. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1366-74.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1366-1374
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume89
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2009

Fingerprint

Nutritional Requirements
Vitamin D
Serum
Cholecalciferol
Sunlight
Vitamin D Deficiency
Solar System
Young Adult
Placebos
Diet

Cite this

Cashman, Kevin D. ; Wallace, Julie ; Horigan, Geraldine ; Hill, Tom R. ; Barnes, Maria S. ; Lucey, Alice J. ; Bonham, Maxine P. ; Taylor, Nicola ; Duffy, Emeir M. ; Seamans, Kelly ; Muldowney, Siobhan ; FitzGerald, Anthony P. ; Flynn, Albert ; Strain, JJ ; Kiely, Mairead. / Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009 ; Vol. 89, No. 5. pp. 1366-1374.
@article{ceb779beba6b46eaad62155240fa7182,
title = "Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age",
abstract = "Background: Older adults may be more prone to developing vitamin D deficiency than younger adults. Dietary requirements for vitamin D in older adults are based on limited evidence. Objective: The objective was to establish the dietary intake of vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above various cutoffs between 25 and 80 nmol/L during wintertime, which accounted for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 22-wk intervention was conducted in men and women aged >= 64 y (n = 225) at supplemental levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g vitamin D3/d from October 2007 to March 2008. Results: Clear dose-related increments (P 0.0001) in serum 25(OH)D were observed with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3 intakes. The slope of the relation between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was 1.97 nmol . L-1 . mu g intake(-1). The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25 nmol/L in 97.5{\%} of the sample was 8.6 mu g/d. Intakes were 7.9 and 11.4 mu g/d in those who reported a minimum of 15 min daily summer sunshine exposure or less, respectively. The intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5{\%} of the sample were 17.2, 24.7, and 38.7 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: To ensure that the vitamin D requirement is met by the vast majority (>97.5{\%}) of adults aged >= 64 y during winter, between 7.9 and 42.8 mu g vitamin D/d is required, depending on summer sun exposure and the threshold of adequacy of 25(OH)D. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN20236112 as ISRCTN registration no. ISRCTN20236112. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1366-74.",
author = "Cashman, {Kevin D.} and Julie Wallace and Geraldine Horigan and Hill, {Tom R.} and Barnes, {Maria S.} and Lucey, {Alice J.} and Bonham, {Maxine P.} and Nicola Taylor and Duffy, {Emeir M.} and Kelly Seamans and Siobhan Muldowney and FitzGerald, {Anthony P.} and Albert Flynn and JJ Strain and Mairead Kiely",
year = "2009",
month = "5",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.2008.27334",
language = "English",
volume = "89",
pages = "1366--1374",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
number = "5",

}

Cashman, KD, Wallace, J, Horigan, G, Hill, TR, Barnes, MS, Lucey, AJ, Bonham, MP, Taylor, N, Duffy, EM, Seamans, K, Muldowney, S, FitzGerald, AP, Flynn, A, Strain, JJ & Kiely, M 2009, 'Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1366-1374. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27334

Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age. / Cashman, Kevin D.; Wallace, Julie; Horigan, Geraldine; Hill, Tom R.; Barnes, Maria S.; Lucey, Alice J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Taylor, Nicola; Duffy, Emeir M.; Seamans, Kelly; Muldowney, Siobhan; FitzGerald, Anthony P.; Flynn, Albert; Strain, JJ; Kiely, Mairead.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5, 05.2009, p. 1366-1374.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults ≥64 y of age

AU - Cashman, Kevin D.

AU - Wallace, Julie

AU - Horigan, Geraldine

AU - Hill, Tom R.

AU - Barnes, Maria S.

AU - Lucey, Alice J.

AU - Bonham, Maxine P.

AU - Taylor, Nicola

AU - Duffy, Emeir M.

AU - Seamans, Kelly

AU - Muldowney, Siobhan

AU - FitzGerald, Anthony P.

AU - Flynn, Albert

AU - Strain, JJ

AU - Kiely, Mairead

PY - 2009/5

Y1 - 2009/5

N2 - Background: Older adults may be more prone to developing vitamin D deficiency than younger adults. Dietary requirements for vitamin D in older adults are based on limited evidence. Objective: The objective was to establish the dietary intake of vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above various cutoffs between 25 and 80 nmol/L during wintertime, which accounted for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 22-wk intervention was conducted in men and women aged >= 64 y (n = 225) at supplemental levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g vitamin D3/d from October 2007 to March 2008. Results: Clear dose-related increments (P 0.0001) in serum 25(OH)D were observed with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3 intakes. The slope of the relation between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was 1.97 nmol . L-1 . mu g intake(-1). The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.6 mu g/d. Intakes were 7.9 and 11.4 mu g/d in those who reported a minimum of 15 min daily summer sunshine exposure or less, respectively. The intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 17.2, 24.7, and 38.7 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: To ensure that the vitamin D requirement is met by the vast majority (>97.5%) of adults aged >= 64 y during winter, between 7.9 and 42.8 mu g vitamin D/d is required, depending on summer sun exposure and the threshold of adequacy of 25(OH)D. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN20236112 as ISRCTN registration no. ISRCTN20236112. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1366-74.

AB - Background: Older adults may be more prone to developing vitamin D deficiency than younger adults. Dietary requirements for vitamin D in older adults are based on limited evidence. Objective: The objective was to establish the dietary intake of vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above various cutoffs between 25 and 80 nmol/L during wintertime, which accounted for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 22-wk intervention was conducted in men and women aged >= 64 y (n = 225) at supplemental levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mu g vitamin D3/d from October 2007 to March 2008. Results: Clear dose-related increments (P 0.0001) in serum 25(OH)D were observed with increasing supplemental vitamin D-3 intakes. The slope of the relation between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was 1.97 nmol . L-1 . mu g intake(-1). The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.6 mu g/d. Intakes were 7.9 and 11.4 mu g/d in those who reported a minimum of 15 min daily summer sunshine exposure or less, respectively. The intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 17.2, 24.7, and 38.7 mu g/d, respectively. Conclusion: To ensure that the vitamin D requirement is met by the vast majority (>97.5%) of adults aged >= 64 y during winter, between 7.9 and 42.8 mu g vitamin D/d is required, depending on summer sun exposure and the threshold of adequacy of 25(OH)D. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN20236112 as ISRCTN registration no. ISRCTN20236112. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1366-74.

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27334

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27334

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 1366

EP - 1374

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

T2 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 5

ER -