Epidemiological attributes to eye injuries: A personal experience of ocular emergencies in South East Asia and Africa: a three-year audit

Adarsh Bhardwaj, Christina Gellknight, Kamal Narain, Vaibhav Dubey, Alok Semwal

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Aim: This study is based on our personal experience of Ocular emergencies in hospitals of South East Asia and Africa before joining AIMST University in 2018. We aim to determine
numerous epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the eyes with injuries, their etiology, and associated risk and outcome. Methods: This study is retrospective and observational. It includes multiple activities related injuries due to domestic work, sports, and assault. The data was recorded in the eye clinics of the hospitals over the period of 3 years i.e., January-2002 to December-2004. Data of injuries were documented based on subjects with the following criteria: (1). Age & Sex (2). Activity at the time of injury (3). Use/no use of protective eye gears (4). Complete anterior and posterior segment examinations of the eyes (5). Visual acuity after injury (6). Need for emergency surgery or hospital admission for
observation. Results: The study included 257 patients with ocular trauma. Out of which
212 i.e., 82.49 % were males and 45 i.e., 17.57 % were females including children. As per the recorded data via multi-variable logistic regression revealed the most affected age group
was 6-12 years and 21-30 years respectively, requiring around 3 to 4 follow up appointments. As a whole, Blunt Trauma (BT) was the major cause of eye injury resulting in (n=42) inpatients i.e., 16.34% while Intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB) with the least number of (n=2) inpatients i.e. 0.78 %. The related causes to eye injury were mostly unknown i.e., 43.36%, followed by trauma during domestic/leisure activity 24.22%, while injury through sports activity were the lowest i.e., 3.50 %. Among the subjects, (n=12) 29.27% working in Palm oil plantations suffered the highest eye injuries in contrast to only (n=1) patient 2.44 % working in rubber industry, without using protective eyewear at the time of injury. The patients were evaluated for their injury of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye. Conclusion: The domestic/leisure activities were the major cause of most ocular injuries as reported in our study, followed by work/occupation related injuries.
The patients who faced major risks being workers of the palm oil industries and in various
workshops, field laborer’s, farmers, grass-cutters etc. Injuries in the male population were
more than in females. Precautions (like using protective eye gears) are to be considered
seriously during leisure activities also to prevent ocular injuries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-178
Number of pages9
JournalResearch in Pharmacy and Health Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Mar 2022


  • Blunt Trauma (BT)
  • Intraocular Foreign Bodies (IOFB)
  • Domestic/Leisure activities
  • Eye Injuries
  • Work/Occupational injuries
  • Protective Eye Gears


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