Vitamin D is obtained by cattle from the diet and from skin production via ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure from sunlight. The vitamin D status of the cow impacts the vitamin D content of the milk produced, much like human breast milk, with seasonal variation in the vitamin D content of milk well documented. Factors such as changes in husbandry practices therefore have the potential to impact the vitamin D content of milk. For example, a shift to year-round housing from traditional practises of cattle being out to graze during the summer months and housed during the winter only, minimises exposure to the sun and has been shown to negatively influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced. Other practices such as changing dietary sources of vitamin D may also influence the vitamin D content of milk, and evidence exists to suggest genetic factors such as breed can cause variation in the concentrations of vitamin D in the milk produced. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced by dairy cattle. A number of environmental and genetic factors have previously been identified as having influence on the nutritional content of the milk produced. This review highlights a need for further research to fully elucidate how farmers could manipulate the factors identified to their advantage with respect to increasing the vitamin D content of milk and standardising it across the year.
- environmental factors
- genetic factors
- vitamin D
- cows’ milk
Weir, RR., Strain, JJ., Johnston, M., Lowis, C., Fearon, AM., Stewart, S., & Pourshahidi, L. K. (2017). Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows’ milk. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 76(1), 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665116000811