Entrepreneurship education and veterinary medicine: enhancing employable skills

C Henry, Lorna Treanor

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    24 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose – This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship educationwithin veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurshipeducation literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricularequirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education can benefit veterinary students.Design/methodology/approach – The approach adopted by the authors includes a literaturereview, in-depth discussion and the development of hypotheses for further study.Findings – Entrepreneurship education has the potential to make a valuable contribution toveterinary medicine curricula. This is due to the fact that the majority of veterinary graduates willwork in or even own/co-own a veterinary business (i.e. a small veterinary practice) at some point intheir career. In this context, the authors illustrate how entrepreneurship education can enhanceboth employable and day one/year one skills. The high entry requirements for veterinaryprogrammes and the gender shift towards a predominantly female under- and postgraduatepopulation add further interesting dimensions to the paper and present possible avenues for furtherresearch.Research limitations/implications – This is a conceptual paper and it is fully recognised that theconcepts and hypotheses proposed need to be further developed and tested at the empirical level. Someinteresting avenues for future research that could contribute significantly to this field are alsoidentified.Originality/value – The paper highlights the potential value of incorporating entrepreneurshipeducation within veterinary curricula. It also identifies how such incorporation can enhance students’employable skills and deliver many of the skills included in veterinary medicine’s day one/year onecompetences’ agenda.Keywords Education, Veterinary medicine, Skills, United Kingdom, Entrepreneurialism
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages607-623
    JournalEducation + Training
    Volume52
    Issue number8/9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    Entrepreneurship education
    Medicine
    Curriculum
    Key words
    Entrepreneurship
    Education
    Design methodology
    Agenda
    Entrepreneurialism

    Cite this

    Henry, C ; Treanor, Lorna. / Entrepreneurship education and veterinary medicine: enhancing employable skills. In: Education + Training. 2010 ; Vol. 52, No. 8/9. pp. 607-623.
    @article{62bea91cc3c14534a048410a4e7d7c81,
    title = "Entrepreneurship education and veterinary medicine: enhancing employable skills",
    abstract = "Purpose – This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship educationwithin veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurshipeducation literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricularequirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education can benefit veterinary students.Design/methodology/approach – The approach adopted by the authors includes a literaturereview, in-depth discussion and the development of hypotheses for further study.Findings – Entrepreneurship education has the potential to make a valuable contribution toveterinary medicine curricula. This is due to the fact that the majority of veterinary graduates willwork in or even own/co-own a veterinary business (i.e. a small veterinary practice) at some point intheir career. In this context, the authors illustrate how entrepreneurship education can enhanceboth employable and day one/year one skills. The high entry requirements for veterinaryprogrammes and the gender shift towards a predominantly female under- and postgraduatepopulation add further interesting dimensions to the paper and present possible avenues for furtherresearch.Research limitations/implications – This is a conceptual paper and it is fully recognised that theconcepts and hypotheses proposed need to be further developed and tested at the empirical level. Someinteresting avenues for future research that could contribute significantly to this field are alsoidentified.Originality/value – The paper highlights the potential value of incorporating entrepreneurshipeducation within veterinary curricula. It also identifies how such incorporation can enhance students’employable skills and deliver many of the skills included in veterinary medicine’s day one/year onecompetences’ agenda.Keywords Education, Veterinary medicine, Skills, United Kingdom, Entrepreneurialism",
    author = "C Henry and Lorna Treanor",
    note = "Reference text: Andersson, T. (2000), “Policy design, implementation and evaluation – rationale, efficiency and systemic concerns”, OECD paper presented at the Forum on Public Policies for SMEs in Europe, Lisbon, 13-14 April. Baillie, S. and Rhind, S. (2008), “A guide to assessment methods in veterinary medicine”, a ‘Blue Sky’ project funded by the RCVS Trust, available at: www.live.ac.uk/documents/ assessment_guide.pdf (accessed 20 May 2010). Bandura, A. (1992), “Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism”, in Schwartzer, R. (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought Control of Action, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, pp. 3-38. Benson, G.L. (1992), “Teaching entrepreneurship through the classics”, Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 135-40. BIS (2009), Higher Ambitions: the Future of Universities in a Knowledge Economy, Department for Business Innovation and Skills, London, available at: www.bis.gov.uk Botham, R. and Mason, C. (2007), Good Practice in Enterprise Development in UK Higher Education NCGE Research Reports, available at: www.ncge.com/communities/research/ reference/detail/1050/4 (accessed 25 May 2010). Brown, J.P. and Silverman, J.D. (1999), “The current and future market for veterinarians and veterinary medical services in the United States”, Journal of the American Veterinary Association, Vol. 215, pp. 161-83. Entrepreneurship education and medicine 619 BVA (2008), Policy Brief: The Relevance of Research & Development to the Veterinary Profession, British Veterinary Association, London, December, available at: www.bva.co.uk/pol_ brief_RD_and_vet_profession.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010). BVA/AVS (2008), Survey 2008, British Veterinary Association/Association of Veterinary Students, London, available at: www.bva.co.uk CIHE (2010), Talent Fishing: What Businesses Want from Postgraduates, Council for Industry and Higher Education, London, available at: www.cihe.co.uk Cooney, T. and Murray, T. (2008), Entrepreneurship Education in the Third-level Sector in Ireland, Institute of Minority Entrepreneurship report, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin. Curran, J. (2000), “What is small business in the UK for? Evaluation and assessing small business policies”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 36-50. Daly, S. (2001), “Student-operated internet businesses: true experiential learning in entrepreneurship and retail management”, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 204-15. Davies, L.G. and Gibb, A.A. (1991), “Recent research in entrepreneurship”, paper presented at 3rd International EIASM Workshop, Gower, Farnham. Dearing, R. (1997), The Dearing Report, available at: https://bei.leeds.ac.uk/Partners/NCIHE Dickson, P.H. and Solmon, G.T. (2008), “Entrepreneurial selection and success: does education matter?”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 239-58. European Commission (2008a), Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially within Non-business Studies, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Report, European Commission, Brussels. European Commission (2008b), Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Report, European Commission, Brussels. Fiet, J.O. (2000), “The pedagogical side of entrepreneurship theory”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 101-17. Galloway, L. and Brown, W. (2002), “Entrepreneurship education at university: a driver in the creation of high growth firms?”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 44 Nos 8/9, pp. 398-405. Garavan, T. and O’Cinneide, B. (1994a), “Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation: part 1”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 No. 8, pp. 3-12. Garavan, T. and O’Cinneide, B. (1994b), “Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation: part 2”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 No. 11, pp. 13-21. Gibb, A.A. (1993), “Do we really teach small business in the way we should?”, Proceedings of the Internationalising Entrepreneurship Education and Training Conference, Vienna. Gibb, A.A. (1997), “Small firms training and competitiveness: building upon the small business as a learning organisation”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 13-29. Gibb, A.A. (2005), Towards the Entrepreneurial University; Entrepreneurship Education as a Lever of Change, Policy Paper 3, National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, Birmingham. Gibb, A.A. and Cotton, J. (1998), “Entrepreneurship in schools and college education: creating the leading edge”, paper presented at the Conference on Work Future and the Role of Entrepreneurship Education, London, 8 December. Gorman, G., Hanlon, D. and King, W. (1997), “Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management: a ten year literature review”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 56-78. ET 52,8/9 620 Greene, F.J. (2009), “Assessing the impact of policy interventions: the influence of evaluation methodology”, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Vol. 27, pp. 216-29. Hannon, P. (2006), “Teaching pigeons to dance: sense and meaning in entrepreneurship education”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp. 296-308. Hannon, P. (2007), “Enterprise for all? The fragility of enterprise provision across England’s HEIs”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 183-210. Harding, R. (2007), GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) UK 2006, London Business School, London, available at: www.gemconsortium.org (accessed 27 May 2010). Harkema, S.J.M. and Schout, H. (2008), “Incorporating student-centred learning in innovation and entrepreneurship education”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 513-26. Hartshorn, C. and Hannon, P.D. (2005), “Paradoxes in entrepreneurship education: chalk and talk or chalk and cheese?”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 47 Nos 8/9, pp. 616-27. Hawkins, P. (1999), The Art of Building Windmills: Career Tactics for the Twenty-first Century, Graduate into Employment Unit, University of Liverpool, Liverpool. Hazlett, S.A., Henderson, J., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2007), “Attitudes towards entrepreneurship among female and male undergraduates: a preliminary study”, in Carter, N.M., Henry, C., O’Cinneide, B. and Johnston, K. (Eds), Female Entrepreneurship: Implications for Education, Training and Policy, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 69-87. HEA (2005), Embedding Employability in the Curriculum: Enhancing Students’ Career Planning Skills, Higher Education Academy, York, available at: www.heacademy.ac.uk (accessed 10 May 2010). Henry, C., Baillie, S. and Treanor, L. (2010), “Encouraging women’s entrepreneurship in the sciences: women in veterinary medicine”, in Wynarczyk, P. and Marlow, S. (Eds), Innovating Women: Contributions to Technological Advancement, Emerald Publishing, Bingley. Henry, C., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2003), Entrepreneurship Education and Training, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot. Henry, C., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2005), “Entrepreneurship education and training: can entrepreneurship be taught? Part I”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 47 No. 2, pp. 98-111. Herrman, K. (2008), “STEM the critical shortage of wealth creators: view from the top”, Research Fortnight, 22 October, p. 19. Hynes, B. and Richardson, T. (2007), “Creating an entrepreneurial mindset: getting the process right for information and communication technology students”, in Lowry, G. (Ed.), Information Systems and Technology Education: From the University to the Workplace, IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Hytti, U. and O’Gorman, C. (2004), “What is ‘enterprise education’? An analysis of the objectives and methods of enterprise education programmes in four European countries”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 11-23. Ilgen, D.R. (2002), “Skills, knowledge, aptitudes and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands”, JVME, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 153-6. Jamieson, I. (1984), “Education for enterprise”, in Watts, A.G. and Moran, P. (Eds), CRAC, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 19-27. Jenssen, J.I. and Havnes, P.A. (2002), “Public intervention in the entrepreneurial process: a study based on three Norwegian cases”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 137-87. Jones, C. and English, J. (2004), “A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 46 Nos 8/9, pp. 416-23. Entrepreneurship education and medicine 621 Kogan, L.R., McConnell, S.L. and Schoenfeld-Tacher, R. (2005), “Perspectives in professional education: response of a veterinary college to career development needs identified in the KPMG LLP study”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 226 No. 7. Leitch, C. and Harrison, R.T. (1999), “A process model for entrepreneurship education and development”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 83-109. Leitch, S. (2006), “Leitch review of skills – prosperity for all in the global economy, world-class skills – final report”, December, available at: www.ggpg.org.uk/governance-and-fesystem/ leitch-report.html Lofstedt, J. (2003), “Gender and veterinary medicine”, Canadian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 44 No. 7, pp. 533-5. Lowe, P. (2009), Unlocking Potential – A Report on Veterinary Expertise in Food Animal Production, Department for Environment and Food Rural Affairs (DEFRA), London. McMullan, E., Chrisman, J.J. and Vesper, K. (2001), “Some problems in using subjective measures of effectiveness to evaluate assistance programmes”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 37-54. McNair, S. (2003), Employability in Higher Education, LTSN Generic Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford. Maines, R. (2007), “Why are women crowding into veterinary medicine but are not lining up to become engineers?”, Chronicle Online, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 12 June, available at: www.news.cornell.edu/stories/june07/women.vets.vs.eng.sl.html (accessed 7 April 2010). Matlay, H. (2008), “The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial outcomes”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 382-96. Matlay, H. (2009), “Entrepreneurship education in the UK: a critical analysis of stakeholder involvement and expectations”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 355-68. Monroy, T.G. (1995), “Getting closer to a descriptive model of entrepreneurship education”, in Monroy, T.G., Reichart, J. and Hoy, F. (Eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 3, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 205-17. National Science Learning Centre (2008), Developing Excellence, National Science Learning Centre, York, July, available at: www.sciencelearningcentres.org.uk NCGE (2007), Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Higher Education: A Report by The National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, Birmingham. Oldsman, E. and Hallberg, K. (2001), Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Small Enterprise Initiatives, Nexus Associates, Nutfield, available at: www.wiram.de/dokumente/ EvaluationPaper.PDF Pajarinen, M., Rouvinen, P. and Yla-Anttila, P. (2006), Uusyrittajinen kasvuhakuisuus, KTM julkaisuja 29/2006, Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Helsinki. Pittaway, L. and Cope, J. (2007), “Entrepreneurship education: a systematic review of the evidence”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp. 479-510. QAA (2002), Veterinary Science – Subject Benchmark Statements, Quality Assurance Agency, Gloucester. Rae, D. (2003), “Opportunity centred learning: an innovation in enterprise?”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 45 No. 8, pp. 542-9. RCVS (2006), RCVS Essential Competences Required of the Veterinary Surgeon, Day One Competences, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London, available at: www.rcvs.org. uk ET 52,8/9 622 RCVS (2008), Drive to Increase Diversity of Veterinary Profession, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London, 8 May, available at: www.rcvs.org.uk/templates/Internal. asp?NodeID¼307905 (accessed 8 January 2010). Robertson, M. and Collins, A. (2003), “Developing entrepreneurship in West Yorkshire: West Yorkshire Universities’ Partnership and Business Start-up@Leeds Met”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 45 No. 6, pp. 303-21. Ronstadt, R. (1987), “The educated entrepreneurs: a new era of entrepreneurial education is beginning”, American Journal of Small Business, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 37-53. Rosa, P. and Dawson, A. (2006), “Gender and the commercialization of university science: academic founders of spinout companies”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, July, pp. 341-66. RVC – LIVE (2007), Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine – Day One Skills, Royal Veterinary College – LIVE, London, available at: www.rvc.ac.uk or www.live.ac.uk (accessed 24 May 2010). Science and Learning Expert Group (2010), Science and Learning Expert Group Report – Science and Maths Secondary Education for the Twenty-first Century, Science and Learning Expert Group, London, February, available at: www.bis.org.uk Shinnar, R., Pruett, M. and Toney, B. (2009), “Entrepreneurship education: attitudes across campus”, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 84 No. 3, pp. 151-8. Storey, D. (2000), “Six steps to Heaven: evaluating the impact of public policies to support small business in developed economies”, in Sexton, D.L. and Landstrom, H. (Eds), The Blackwell Book of Entrepreneurship, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 176-94. Taatila, V.P. (2010), “Learning entrepreneurship in higher education”, Education {\th} Training, Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 48-61. WEF (2009), Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs: Unlocking Entrepreneurial Capabilities to Meet the Global Challenges of the Twenty-first Century – A Report of the Global Education Initiative, World Economic Forum, Davos. Westhead, P., Storey, D.J. and Martin, F. (2001), “Outcomes reported by students who participate in the 1994 Shell Technology Enterprise Programme”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 13, pp. 163-85. Corresponding author Colette Henry can be contacted at: chenry@rvc.ac.uk Entrepreneurship education and medicine 623 To",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1108/00400911011088944",
    language = "English",
    volume = "52",
    pages = "607--623",
    journal = "Education and Training",
    issn = "0040-0912",
    number = "8/9",

    }

    Entrepreneurship education and veterinary medicine: enhancing employable skills. / Henry, C; Treanor, Lorna.

    In: Education + Training, Vol. 52, No. 8/9, 2010, p. 607-623.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Entrepreneurship education and veterinary medicine: enhancing employable skills

    AU - Henry, C

    AU - Treanor, Lorna

    N1 - Reference text: Andersson, T. (2000), “Policy design, implementation and evaluation – rationale, efficiency and systemic concerns”, OECD paper presented at the Forum on Public Policies for SMEs in Europe, Lisbon, 13-14 April. Baillie, S. and Rhind, S. (2008), “A guide to assessment methods in veterinary medicine”, a ‘Blue Sky’ project funded by the RCVS Trust, available at: www.live.ac.uk/documents/ assessment_guide.pdf (accessed 20 May 2010). Bandura, A. (1992), “Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism”, in Schwartzer, R. (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought Control of Action, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, pp. 3-38. Benson, G.L. (1992), “Teaching entrepreneurship through the classics”, Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 135-40. BIS (2009), Higher Ambitions: the Future of Universities in a Knowledge Economy, Department for Business Innovation and Skills, London, available at: www.bis.gov.uk Botham, R. and Mason, C. (2007), Good Practice in Enterprise Development in UK Higher Education NCGE Research Reports, available at: www.ncge.com/communities/research/ reference/detail/1050/4 (accessed 25 May 2010). Brown, J.P. and Silverman, J.D. (1999), “The current and future market for veterinarians and veterinary medical services in the United States”, Journal of the American Veterinary Association, Vol. 215, pp. 161-83. Entrepreneurship education and medicine 619 BVA (2008), Policy Brief: The Relevance of Research & Development to the Veterinary Profession, British Veterinary Association, London, December, available at: www.bva.co.uk/pol_ brief_RD_and_vet_profession.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010). BVA/AVS (2008), Survey 2008, British Veterinary Association/Association of Veterinary Students, London, available at: www.bva.co.uk CIHE (2010), Talent Fishing: What Businesses Want from Postgraduates, Council for Industry and Higher Education, London, available at: www.cihe.co.uk Cooney, T. and Murray, T. (2008), Entrepreneurship Education in the Third-level Sector in Ireland, Institute of Minority Entrepreneurship report, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin. Curran, J. (2000), “What is small business in the UK for? Evaluation and assessing small business policies”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 36-50. Daly, S. (2001), “Student-operated internet businesses: true experiential learning in entrepreneurship and retail management”, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 204-15. Davies, L.G. and Gibb, A.A. (1991), “Recent research in entrepreneurship”, paper presented at 3rd International EIASM Workshop, Gower, Farnham. Dearing, R. (1997), The Dearing Report, available at: https://bei.leeds.ac.uk/Partners/NCIHE Dickson, P.H. and Solmon, G.T. (2008), “Entrepreneurial selection and success: does education matter?”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 239-58. European Commission (2008a), Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially within Non-business Studies, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Report, European Commission, Brussels. European Commission (2008b), Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Report, European Commission, Brussels. Fiet, J.O. (2000), “The pedagogical side of entrepreneurship theory”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 101-17. Galloway, L. and Brown, W. (2002), “Entrepreneurship education at university: a driver in the creation of high growth firms?”, Education þ Training, Vol. 44 Nos 8/9, pp. 398-405. Garavan, T. and O’Cinneide, B. (1994a), “Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation: part 1”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 No. 8, pp. 3-12. Garavan, T. and O’Cinneide, B. (1994b), “Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation: part 2”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 No. 11, pp. 13-21. Gibb, A.A. (1993), “Do we really teach small business in the way we should?”, Proceedings of the Internationalising Entrepreneurship Education and Training Conference, Vienna. Gibb, A.A. (1997), “Small firms training and competitiveness: building upon the small business as a learning organisation”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 13-29. Gibb, A.A. (2005), Towards the Entrepreneurial University; Entrepreneurship Education as a Lever of Change, Policy Paper 3, National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, Birmingham. Gibb, A.A. and Cotton, J. (1998), “Entrepreneurship in schools and college education: creating the leading edge”, paper presented at the Conference on Work Future and the Role of Entrepreneurship Education, London, 8 December. Gorman, G., Hanlon, D. and King, W. (1997), “Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management: a ten year literature review”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 56-78. ET 52,8/9 620 Greene, F.J. (2009), “Assessing the impact of policy interventions: the influence of evaluation methodology”, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Vol. 27, pp. 216-29. Hannon, P. (2006), “Teaching pigeons to dance: sense and meaning in entrepreneurship education”, Education þ Training, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp. 296-308. Hannon, P. (2007), “Enterprise for all? The fragility of enterprise provision across England’s HEIs”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 183-210. Harding, R. (2007), GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) UK 2006, London Business School, London, available at: www.gemconsortium.org (accessed 27 May 2010). Harkema, S.J.M. and Schout, H. (2008), “Incorporating student-centred learning in innovation and entrepreneurship education”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 513-26. Hartshorn, C. and Hannon, P.D. (2005), “Paradoxes in entrepreneurship education: chalk and talk or chalk and cheese?”, Education þ Training, Vol. 47 Nos 8/9, pp. 616-27. Hawkins, P. (1999), The Art of Building Windmills: Career Tactics for the Twenty-first Century, Graduate into Employment Unit, University of Liverpool, Liverpool. Hazlett, S.A., Henderson, J., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2007), “Attitudes towards entrepreneurship among female and male undergraduates: a preliminary study”, in Carter, N.M., Henry, C., O’Cinneide, B. and Johnston, K. (Eds), Female Entrepreneurship: Implications for Education, Training and Policy, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 69-87. HEA (2005), Embedding Employability in the Curriculum: Enhancing Students’ Career Planning Skills, Higher Education Academy, York, available at: www.heacademy.ac.uk (accessed 10 May 2010). Henry, C., Baillie, S. and Treanor, L. (2010), “Encouraging women’s entrepreneurship in the sciences: women in veterinary medicine”, in Wynarczyk, P. and Marlow, S. (Eds), Innovating Women: Contributions to Technological Advancement, Emerald Publishing, Bingley. Henry, C., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2003), Entrepreneurship Education and Training, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot. Henry, C., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2005), “Entrepreneurship education and training: can entrepreneurship be taught? Part I”, Education þ Training, Vol. 47 No. 2, pp. 98-111. Herrman, K. (2008), “STEM the critical shortage of wealth creators: view from the top”, Research Fortnight, 22 October, p. 19. Hynes, B. and Richardson, T. (2007), “Creating an entrepreneurial mindset: getting the process right for information and communication technology students”, in Lowry, G. (Ed.), Information Systems and Technology Education: From the University to the Workplace, IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Hytti, U. and O’Gorman, C. (2004), “What is ‘enterprise education’? An analysis of the objectives and methods of enterprise education programmes in four European countries”, Education þ Training, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 11-23. Ilgen, D.R. (2002), “Skills, knowledge, aptitudes and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands”, JVME, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 153-6. Jamieson, I. (1984), “Education for enterprise”, in Watts, A.G. and Moran, P. (Eds), CRAC, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 19-27. Jenssen, J.I. and Havnes, P.A. (2002), “Public intervention in the entrepreneurial process: a study based on three Norwegian cases”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 137-87. Jones, C. and English, J. (2004), “A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education”, Education þ Training, Vol. 46 Nos 8/9, pp. 416-23. Entrepreneurship education and medicine 621 Kogan, L.R., McConnell, S.L. and Schoenfeld-Tacher, R. (2005), “Perspectives in professional education: response of a veterinary college to career development needs identified in the KPMG LLP study”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 226 No. 7. Leitch, C. and Harrison, R.T. (1999), “A process model for entrepreneurship education and development”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 83-109. Leitch, S. (2006), “Leitch review of skills – prosperity for all in the global economy, world-class skills – final report”, December, available at: www.ggpg.org.uk/governance-and-fesystem/ leitch-report.html Lofstedt, J. (2003), “Gender and veterinary medicine”, Canadian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 44 No. 7, pp. 533-5. Lowe, P. (2009), Unlocking Potential – A Report on Veterinary Expertise in Food Animal Production, Department for Environment and Food Rural Affairs (DEFRA), London. McMullan, E., Chrisman, J.J. and Vesper, K. (2001), “Some problems in using subjective measures of effectiveness to evaluate assistance programmes”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 37-54. McNair, S. (2003), Employability in Higher Education, LTSN Generic Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford. Maines, R. (2007), “Why are women crowding into veterinary medicine but are not lining up to become engineers?”, Chronicle Online, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 12 June, available at: www.news.cornell.edu/stories/june07/women.vets.vs.eng.sl.html (accessed 7 April 2010). Matlay, H. (2008), “The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial outcomes”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 382-96. Matlay, H. (2009), “Entrepreneurship education in the UK: a critical analysis of stakeholder involvement and expectations”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 355-68. Monroy, T.G. (1995), “Getting closer to a descriptive model of entrepreneurship education”, in Monroy, T.G., Reichart, J. and Hoy, F. (Eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 3, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 205-17. National Science Learning Centre (2008), Developing Excellence, National Science Learning Centre, York, July, available at: www.sciencelearningcentres.org.uk NCGE (2007), Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Higher Education: A Report by The National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, Birmingham. Oldsman, E. and Hallberg, K. (2001), Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Small Enterprise Initiatives, Nexus Associates, Nutfield, available at: www.wiram.de/dokumente/ EvaluationPaper.PDF Pajarinen, M., Rouvinen, P. and Yla-Anttila, P. (2006), Uusyrittajinen kasvuhakuisuus, KTM julkaisuja 29/2006, Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Helsinki. Pittaway, L. and Cope, J. (2007), “Entrepreneurship education: a systematic review of the evidence”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp. 479-510. QAA (2002), Veterinary Science – Subject Benchmark Statements, Quality Assurance Agency, Gloucester. Rae, D. 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(2006), “Gender and the commercialization of university science: academic founders of spinout companies”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, July, pp. 341-66. RVC – LIVE (2007), Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine – Day One Skills, Royal Veterinary College – LIVE, London, available at: www.rvc.ac.uk or www.live.ac.uk (accessed 24 May 2010). Science and Learning Expert Group (2010), Science and Learning Expert Group Report – Science and Maths Secondary Education for the Twenty-first Century, Science and Learning Expert Group, London, February, available at: www.bis.org.uk Shinnar, R., Pruett, M. and Toney, B. (2009), “Entrepreneurship education: attitudes across campus”, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 84 No. 3, pp. 151-8. Storey, D. (2000), “Six steps to Heaven: evaluating the impact of public policies to support small business in developed economies”, in Sexton, D.L. and Landstrom, H. (Eds), The Blackwell Book of Entrepreneurship, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 176-94. Taatila, V.P. (2010), “Learning entrepreneurship in higher education”, Education þ Training, Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 48-61. WEF (2009), Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs: Unlocking Entrepreneurial Capabilities to Meet the Global Challenges of the Twenty-first Century – A Report of the Global Education Initiative, World Economic Forum, Davos. Westhead, P., Storey, D.J. and Martin, F. (2001), “Outcomes reported by students who participate in the 1994 Shell Technology Enterprise Programme”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 13, pp. 163-85. Corresponding author Colette Henry can be contacted at: chenry@rvc.ac.uk Entrepreneurship education and medicine 623 To

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Purpose – This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship educationwithin veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurshipeducation literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricularequirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education can benefit veterinary students.Design/methodology/approach – The approach adopted by the authors includes a literaturereview, in-depth discussion and the development of hypotheses for further study.Findings – Entrepreneurship education has the potential to make a valuable contribution toveterinary medicine curricula. This is due to the fact that the majority of veterinary graduates willwork in or even own/co-own a veterinary business (i.e. a small veterinary practice) at some point intheir career. In this context, the authors illustrate how entrepreneurship education can enhanceboth employable and day one/year one skills. The high entry requirements for veterinaryprogrammes and the gender shift towards a predominantly female under- and postgraduatepopulation add further interesting dimensions to the paper and present possible avenues for furtherresearch.Research limitations/implications – This is a conceptual paper and it is fully recognised that theconcepts and hypotheses proposed need to be further developed and tested at the empirical level. Someinteresting avenues for future research that could contribute significantly to this field are alsoidentified.Originality/value – The paper highlights the potential value of incorporating entrepreneurshipeducation within veterinary curricula. It also identifies how such incorporation can enhance students’employable skills and deliver many of the skills included in veterinary medicine’s day one/year onecompetences’ agenda.Keywords Education, Veterinary medicine, Skills, United Kingdom, Entrepreneurialism

    AB - Purpose – This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship educationwithin veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurshipeducation literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricularequirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education can benefit veterinary students.Design/methodology/approach – The approach adopted by the authors includes a literaturereview, in-depth discussion and the development of hypotheses for further study.Findings – Entrepreneurship education has the potential to make a valuable contribution toveterinary medicine curricula. This is due to the fact that the majority of veterinary graduates willwork in or even own/co-own a veterinary business (i.e. a small veterinary practice) at some point intheir career. In this context, the authors illustrate how entrepreneurship education can enhanceboth employable and day one/year one skills. The high entry requirements for veterinaryprogrammes and the gender shift towards a predominantly female under- and postgraduatepopulation add further interesting dimensions to the paper and present possible avenues for furtherresearch.Research limitations/implications – This is a conceptual paper and it is fully recognised that theconcepts and hypotheses proposed need to be further developed and tested at the empirical level. Someinteresting avenues for future research that could contribute significantly to this field are alsoidentified.Originality/value – The paper highlights the potential value of incorporating entrepreneurshipeducation within veterinary curricula. It also identifies how such incorporation can enhance students’employable skills and deliver many of the skills included in veterinary medicine’s day one/year onecompetences’ agenda.Keywords Education, Veterinary medicine, Skills, United Kingdom, Entrepreneurialism

    U2 - 10.1108/00400911011088944

    DO - 10.1108/00400911011088944

    M3 - Article

    VL - 52

    SP - 607

    EP - 623

    JO - Education and Training

    T2 - Education and Training

    JF - Education and Training

    SN - 0040-0912

    IS - 8/9

    ER -