Enhancing rigour in the Delphi technique research

Felicity Hasson, Sinead Keeney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

480 Citations (Scopus)


The cornerstone of good research is establishing integrity. However, identifying and gauging methodological rigour for the Delphi technique remains elusive. This is due to a number of reasons such as the ongoing epistemological debate, along with continual modifications. Consequently, the scant studies exploring rigour are mainly experimental, component specific and outdated. This paper discusses the literature on establishing rigour in Delphi studies, the methodological trinity of reliability, validity and trustworthiness. In addition it presents a discussion of the principal forms of establishing rigour, such as the application of rigour using both qualitative and quantitative measurements and corroborating results with relevant evidence in the field for each individual Delphi. Addressing such issues will help enhance the development and utilisation of rigour in the future
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1695-1704
JournalTechnological Forecasting and Social Change
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - Nov 2011


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