Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of the Imidazolinone Herbicide Imazapyr upon UV/Vis Irradiation in the Presence of CaxMnOy-TiO2 Hetero-Nanostructures: Degradation Pathways and Reaction Intermediates

Salma Bougarrani, Preetam Sharma, Jeremy Hamilton, Anukriti Singh, Moises Canle, Mohammed El Azzouzi, John Byrne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The determination of reaction pathways and identification of products of pollutants degradation is central to photocatalytic environmental remediation. This work focuses on the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide Imazapyr (2-(4-methyl-5-oxo-4-propan-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) under UV-Vis and visible-only irradiation of aqueous suspensions of CaxMnOy-TiO2, and on the identification of the corresponding degradation pathways and reaction intermediates. CaxMnOy-TiO2 was formed by mixing CaxMnOy and TiO2 by mechanical grinding followed by annealing at 500 °C. A complete structural characterization of CaxMnOy-TiO2 was carried out. The photocatalytic activity of the hetero-nanostructures was determined using phenol and Imazapyr herbicide as model pollutants in a stirred tank reactor under UV-Vis and visible-only irradiation. Using equivalent loadings, CaxMnOy-TiO2 showed a higher rate (10.6 μM·h−1) as compared to unmodified TiO2 (7.4 μM·h−1) for Imazapyr degradation under UV-Vis irradiation. The mineralization rate was 4.07 µM·h−1 for CaxMnOy-TiO2 and 1.21 μM·h−1 for TiO2. In the CaxMnOy-TiO2 system, the concentration of intermediate products reached a maximum at 180 min of irradiation that then decreased to a half in 120 min. For unmodified TiO2, the intermediates continuously increased with irradiation time with no decrease observed in their concentration. The enhanced efficiency of the CaxMnOy-TiO2 for the complete degradation of the Imazapyr and intermediates is attributed to an increased adsorption of polar species on the surface of CaxMnOy. Based on LC-MS, photocatalytic degradation pathways for Imazapyr under UV-Vis irradiation have been proposed. Some photocatalytic degradation was obtained under visible-only irradiation for CaxMnOy-TiO2. Hydroxyl radicals were found to be main reactive oxygen species responsible for the photocatalytic degradation through radical scavenger investigations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number896
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalNanomaterials
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2020

Keywords

  • persistent organic pollutants
  • photocatalysis
  • TiO2
  • Birnessite
  • water remediation
  • hydroxyl radicals
  • degradation pathways
  • photoproducts

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