Energy and English wine production: A review of energy use and benchmarking

Mervyn Smyth, Alastair Nesbitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
770 Downloads (Pure)


The English (and Welsh) wine production industry, with more than 120 wineries, has many challenges linked to its northerly cool climate conditions and youthful status as a quality wine-producing country. The subject of sustainability remains important for producers, particularly as a means of improving the economic viability of wine production.This paper presents energy usage within English winemaking facilities based upon energy audits conducted at an individual winery level. The survey did not include vineyard operations or energy usage. The wineries surveyed were representative of the geographic distribution of producers in England and included a range of production scales from a few thousand bottles per year to over 300,000 bottles per year. The combined (average yearly) bottle production for the wineries surveyed was 1,032,194 bottles, representing almost 26% of the total wine production capacity in England and Wales, expending 512,350 kWh of energy. Almost 44% of the energy expended in English wine production is related to heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) requirements, with 22% related to lighting. Extrapolating the study findings to the entire English winemaking industry (winery only) indicates that 2008 MWh of energy was expended in 2011. The average energy benchmark for English wine production is 0.557 kWh/l, ranging from 0.040 kWh/l to 2.065 kWh/l, which compares favourably with other wine producing regions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-91
JournalEnergy for Sustainable Development
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 29 Aug 2014


  • English wine production
  • Sustainability
  • Winemaking
  • Energy
  • Benchmark


Dive into the research topics of 'Energy and English wine production: A review of energy use and benchmarking'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this