Ending Residual Paramilitary Domination in Northern Ireland?Restorative Economic and Social Inclusion Strategies.

Kirsty Campbell, Derick Wilson, John Braithwaite

    Research output: Book/ReportScholarly edition

    Abstract

    Paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland is unfinished but finishable. In response to the 2016 ‘Fresh Start’ Panel report (Northern Ireland Government 2016) on disbanding paramilitaries, is it time to finish through a restorative peace? This would require a focus on building justice as a better future for excluded working class neighbourhoods, challenging political and civil society organisations to unequivocally embrace the task of reconciliation, and resourcing a restorative strand of victim support complementing the valuable work of the current Commission for Victims and Survivors and the Victims and Survivors Service. Responsive adaptation of an ‘Operation Ceasefire’ policing strategy might also help underwrite restorative communities and restorative learning networks that do most of the work. Today’s elites could consider a shift from their neoliberal frames to acknowledge their own ambivalence around the complete rejection of violence and the class character of the Northern Ireland Troubles, so often trumped by the identity politics of that ‘ethnic frontier society’ (Wright 1987: 1-54). Restorative economic and social inclusion strategies at the level of micro-communities, within a ‘shared future’ vision (Northern Ireland Office 2005), forending the domination of the excluded by paramilitaries and other violent gangs are options. So are Operation Ceasefire strategies layered within a restorative societal fabric; not losing sight of the empirical insights of Toft (2010) and Walter (1999; 2002) that unless there is credible commitment in the years ahead to enforce the law against those who continue to rule neighbourhoods through violence—by the stick of locking them away if necessary—the carrots of peace will be gamed by the most ruthlessly militarised leaders. Complexity theory, responsive regulatory theory and restorative justice theory inform this policy analysis in response to the 2016 Paramilitaries Panel Report.
    LanguageEnglish
    Number of pages32
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Nov 2016

    Fingerprint

    domination
    inclusion
    violence
    economics
    peace
    justice
    ambivalence
    reconciliation
    working class
    community
    civil society
    elite
    commitment
    leader
    Law
    politics
    learning

    Keywords

    • Restorative Justice
    • paramilitary violence
    • Northern Ireland
    • Operation Ceasefire strategies
    • Responsive Regulatory Theories

    Cite this

    @book{e6ee95e707a14ad2adaa48b41d910fbc,
    title = "Ending Residual Paramilitary Domination in Northern Ireland?Restorative Economic and Social Inclusion Strategies.",
    abstract = "Paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland is unfinished but finishable. In response to the 2016 ‘Fresh Start’ Panel report (Northern Ireland Government 2016) on disbanding paramilitaries, is it time to finish through a restorative peace? This would require a focus on building justice as a better future for excluded working class neighbourhoods, challenging political and civil society organisations to unequivocally embrace the task of reconciliation, and resourcing a restorative strand of victim support complementing the valuable work of the current Commission for Victims and Survivors and the Victims and Survivors Service. Responsive adaptation of an ‘Operation Ceasefire’ policing strategy might also help underwrite restorative communities and restorative learning networks that do most of the work. Today’s elites could consider a shift from their neoliberal frames to acknowledge their own ambivalence around the complete rejection of violence and the class character of the Northern Ireland Troubles, so often trumped by the identity politics of that ‘ethnic frontier society’ (Wright 1987: 1-54). Restorative economic and social inclusion strategies at the level of micro-communities, within a ‘shared future’ vision (Northern Ireland Office 2005), forending the domination of the excluded by paramilitaries and other violent gangs are options. So are Operation Ceasefire strategies layered within a restorative societal fabric; not losing sight of the empirical insights of Toft (2010) and Walter (1999; 2002) that unless there is credible commitment in the years ahead to enforce the law against those who continue to rule neighbourhoods through violence—by the stick of locking them away if necessary—the carrots of peace will be gamed by the most ruthlessly militarised leaders. Complexity theory, responsive regulatory theory and restorative justice theory inform this policy analysis in response to the 2016 Paramilitaries Panel Report.",
    keywords = "Restorative Justice, paramilitary violence, Northern Ireland, Operation Ceasefire strategies, Responsive Regulatory Theories",
    author = "Kirsty Campbell and Derick Wilson and John Braithwaite",
    note = "This paper emerged from fieldwork and 25 meetings across civil society, the public sector and political groups in May and June 2016 Reference text: Adamson, D. and Bromiley, R. (2008) Community empowerment in practice: Lessons fromCommunities First. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, University of Glamorgan. Available at https://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/migrated/files/2157-community-walesempowerment.pdf. Alderdice, J. McBurney J,. and McWilliams, M. (2016) The Fresh Start Panel Report on the Disbandment of Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Available at https://www.northernireland.gov.uk/publications/fresh-start-panelreport-disbandment-paramilitary-groups-northern-ireland. Ashe, F. (2015) ‘Gendering demilitarization and justice in Northern Ireland’. British Journal of Politics and International Relations 17(4): 665-680. Andrews, M., Pritchett, L, and Woolcock, M. (2015) The Challenge of Building (Real) State Capability. HKS Working Paper No. 074, 7 December. Available at SSRN https://ssrn.com/abstract=2700331 orhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2700331. Autesserre, S. (2010) The Trouble with Congo: Local violence and the failure of international peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press. Autesserre, S. (2014) Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bradley, D. (2013) ‘Colmcille would find a few reasons to moan’. Irish News 7 June 2013. Available at http://www.irishnews.com/opinion/2013/06/07/news/colmcille-would-find-a-fewreasons-to-moan-61714/. Braga, A. A., Apel, R. and Welsh, B.C. (2013) ‘The spillover effects of focused deterrence on gang violence’. Evaluation Review 37(3–4): 314–342. Braga, A.A. and Weisburd, D.L. (2012) ‘The effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence’. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 49(3): 323–358. Braithwaite, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation. New York: Oxford University Press. Braithwaite, J. (2016) ‘Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation: The Question of Evidence’. RegNet Research Paper No. 2014/51. This paper is an updated version of a paper of the same title published in 2014. Also available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2839086. Braithwaite, J. (2017) Fixing Criminology on Complexity. ANU, Canberra: Forthcoming RegNet Research Paper. Braithwaite, J., Charlesworth, H., Reddy, P. and Dunn, L. (2010). Reconciliation and Architectures of Commitment: Sequencing Peace in Bougainville. Canberra: ANU Press. Breen, B. (2016) The Good Neighbour: Volume V: The Official History of Australian Peacekeeping, Humanitarian and Post-Cold War Operations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Briscoe, F. and Safford, S. (2008) ‘The Nixon-in-China effect: Activism, imitation, and the institutionalization of contentious practices’. Administrative science quarterly, 53(3): 460-491. Carnegie Trust (2014) Towards a Well Being Framework, Findings from the Well Being Round Table on Northern Ireland . Available at http://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/carnegieuktrust/wpcontentuploads/sites/64/2016/02/pub1455011423.pdf (accessed 5 November 2016) Chapman, T., Wilson, D. and Campbell, H. (2012) Restorative Justice Approaches in Local Conflicts of Northern Ireland. Belfast: University of Ulster. Chapman, T., Campbell, H., Wilson, D. and Mc Cready, P. (2016) Developing alternative understandings of security and justice through restorative justice approaches in intercultural settings within democratic societies. Leuven: European Union, Alternative Seventh Framework Programme. Community Justice Inspection Northern Ireland (CJINI)(2008) Community Restorative Justice Ireland Report of an inspection, June. Presented to the Houses of Parliament by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland under Section 49(2) of the Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002. Available at http://www.cjini.org/CJNI/files/c4/c48ff826-5ae1-4b46-a5b8-dc232ae6206e.pdf Cunningham, S. (2016) Northern Ireland among best in UK at creating jobs, PwC, Irish News 10 March, 2016. Available at http://www.irishnews.com/business/2016/03/10/news/northern-ireland-among-best-in-uk-atcreating- jobs-pwc-445427/. Eames, Ld R. and Bradley, D. (2009) Report of The Consultative Group on the Past (‘Eames Bradley Report’) 23 June. Presented to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, in accordance with the Terms of Reference given to the Consultative Group on the Past on 22 June 2007. Available at http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/victims/docs/consultative_group/cgp_230109_report.pdf. Eriksson, A. (2009) Justice in Transition: Community restorative justice in Northern Ireland. UK: Willan Publishing. Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D.A. (1997). A Worthwhile Venture? Promoting Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: University of Ulster. Ferguson, N., Burgess, M. and Hollywood, I. (2015) ‘Leaving Violence Behind: Disengaging from politically motivated violence in Northern Ireland’. Political Psychology 36(2): 199-214. Gaffikin, F. and Morrissey, M. (2011) ‘Community Cohesion and Social Inclusion Unravelling a Complex Relationship’. Urban studies 48(6): 1089-1118. Hayes, B. and MacAllister, I. (2013) Conflict to Peace: Politics and Society in Northern Ireland over half a century. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Kalyvas, S. (2003) ‘The ontology of political violence: Action and identity in civil wars’.Perspectives on Politics 1(3): 475-94. Kalyvas, S. (2006) The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kennedy, D.M. (2009) Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction. New York: Routledge. Knox, C. (2016) ‘Northern Ireland: where is the peace dividend?’ Policy & Politics April: 1-19. Kurtz, C.F. and Snowden, D.J. (2003) The new dynamics of strategy: sense-making in a complex-complicated world. IBM Systems Journal 42(3): 462-506. MacMillan, M. (2006) Seize the hour: When Nixon met Mao. London: John Murrey McEvoy, K. and Shirlow, P. (2009) ‘Reimagining DDR: Ex-combatants, leaderships and moral agency in conflict transformation’. Theoretical Criminology 13(1): 31-59. McEvoy, K. and Mika, H. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Critique of Informalism in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Criminology 42(3): 534-562. McKee, L.(2016) ‘Suicide among the Ceasefire babies’. Available at www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/01/...northern-ireland-suicide/424683/-. McVeigh, R. (2015) ‘Living the peace process in reverse: racist and British nationalism in Northern Ireland’. Race and Class 56(4): 3-25. Maloney, E. (2007) A Secret History of the IRA. London: Penguin Books. Mika, H. (2006) Community-based restorative justice in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Queens University Belfast. Mitchell, A. (2011) Lost in Transformation: Violent peace and peaceful conflict in Northern Ireland. London: Palgrave. Morrow, D., Mc Allister, B., Campbell, J. and Wilson, D. (2013) Mediated Dialogues and Systemic Change In Northern Ireland-‘Policing Our Divided Society’ (Pods) 1996-2003. Available at http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/4674/. Monaghan, R. (2008) ‘Community-based justice in Northern Ireland and South Africa’. International Criminal Justice Review 18(1): 83-105. Murphy, J. (2013) Policing for Peace in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Nolan, P. (2014) Northern Ireland Peace Monitoring Report, Number 3. Community Relations Council, Belfast. Northern Ireland Office (2005) 'A Shared Future' The Framework For Good Relations In Northern Ireland. Available at www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/asharedfuturepolicy2005.pdf. Northern Ireland Government (2015) ‘A Fresh Start’—The Stormont Agreement and Implementation Plan. Available at https://www.northernireland.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/nigov/a-fresh-startstormont- agreement_0.pdf. O’Neill, S., Ferry, F., Murphy, S., Corry, C., Bolton, D., Devine, B., Ennis, E. and Bunting, B. ( 2014) ‘Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma’. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91532.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091532. Payne, B., Conway, V., Bell, C., Falk, A., Flynn, A., McNeil, C. and Rice, F. (2010) Restorative Practices in Northern Ireland: A Mapping Exercise. Report commissioned by the Restorative Justice Forum (NI) and prepared by School of Law, Queen’s University, Belfast. Peled, Y. (2014) The Challenge of Ethnic Democracy: The State and Minority Groups in Israel, Poland and Northern Ireland. Milton Park: Routledge. PSNI (2015) Annual Report covering the period 1 April 2014-31 March, 2015. Police Service of Northern Ireland, Page 2. Available at https://www.psni.police.uk/globalassets/inside-thepsni/our-statistics/security-situationstatistics/ documents/annual_security_situation_statistics_report_2014-15.pdf. Reddy, P. (2012) Peace Operations and Restorative Justice: Groundwork for Post-Conflict Regeneration. Aldershot: Ashgate. Regan, P. (1996) ‘Conditions of successful third party intervention in intrastate wars’. Journal of Conflict Resolution 40(2): 336-59. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S.W. and Earls, F. (1997) ‘Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.’ Science 277(5328): 918-924. Shearing, C. and Johnston, L. (2005) ‘Justice in the Risk Society’. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 38(1): 25–38. Stevens Enquiry: Overview and Recommendations, 17 April 2003 Sir John Stevens QPM, DL Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service. Available at http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/collusion/stevens3/stevens3summary.htm. Taylor, C. (2007) A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap. Todd, J. (2015) Northern Ireland: Timing and sequencing of post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding. Centre for Research on Peace and Development Working Paper 39, Leuven, Belgium: KU Leuven. Toft, M. D. (2010) Securing the Peace: The Durable Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton:Princeton University Press. Tomlinson, M. (2012) ‘War, peace and suicide: The case of Northern Ireland’. International Sociology 27(4): 464-482. Walter, B. F. (1999) ‘Designing transitions from civil war: demobilization, democratization and commitments to peace’. International Security 24(1): 127-55. Walter, B. F. (2002) Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Wright, F. (1987) Northern Ireland: A Comparative Analysis. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. Wilson, D. (2016 a) “Integrated Healthcare” - Bridging the Access Gap for Transitional Age Youth”. Keynote Lecture, JFK University, Concord, CA. Wilson, D. (2016 b) Promoting A Restorative Society Culture? Some Restorative Learning Tasks emerging from Restorative Practices in Schools and Communities, Belfast. Belfast:The Understanding Conflict Trust.",
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    Ending Residual Paramilitary Domination in Northern Ireland?Restorative Economic and Social Inclusion Strategies. / Campbell, Kirsty; Wilson, Derick; Braithwaite, John.

    2016. 32 p.

    Research output: Book/ReportScholarly edition

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    N1 - This paper emerged from fieldwork and 25 meetings across civil society, the public sector and political groups in May and June 2016 Reference text: Adamson, D. and Bromiley, R. (2008) Community empowerment in practice: Lessons fromCommunities First. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, University of Glamorgan. Available at https://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/migrated/files/2157-community-walesempowerment.pdf. Alderdice, J. McBurney J,. and McWilliams, M. (2016) The Fresh Start Panel Report on the Disbandment of Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Available at https://www.northernireland.gov.uk/publications/fresh-start-panelreport-disbandment-paramilitary-groups-northern-ireland. Ashe, F. (2015) ‘Gendering demilitarization and justice in Northern Ireland’. British Journal of Politics and International Relations 17(4): 665-680. Andrews, M., Pritchett, L, and Woolcock, M. (2015) The Challenge of Building (Real) State Capability. HKS Working Paper No. 074, 7 December. Available at SSRN https://ssrn.com/abstract=2700331 orhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2700331. Autesserre, S. (2010) The Trouble with Congo: Local violence and the failure of international peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press. Autesserre, S. (2014) Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bradley, D. (2013) ‘Colmcille would find a few reasons to moan’. Irish News 7 June 2013. Available at http://www.irishnews.com/opinion/2013/06/07/news/colmcille-would-find-a-fewreasons-to-moan-61714/. Braga, A. A., Apel, R. and Welsh, B.C. (2013) ‘The spillover effects of focused deterrence on gang violence’. Evaluation Review 37(3–4): 314–342. Braga, A.A. and Weisburd, D.L. (2012) ‘The effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence’. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 49(3): 323–358. Braithwaite, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation. New York: Oxford University Press. Braithwaite, J. (2016) ‘Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation: The Question of Evidence’. RegNet Research Paper No. 2014/51. This paper is an updated version of a paper of the same title published in 2014. Also available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2839086. Braithwaite, J. (2017) Fixing Criminology on Complexity. ANU, Canberra: Forthcoming RegNet Research Paper. Braithwaite, J., Charlesworth, H., Reddy, P. and Dunn, L. (2010). Reconciliation and Architectures of Commitment: Sequencing Peace in Bougainville. Canberra: ANU Press. Breen, B. (2016) The Good Neighbour: Volume V: The Official History of Australian Peacekeeping, Humanitarian and Post-Cold War Operations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Briscoe, F. and Safford, S. (2008) ‘The Nixon-in-China effect: Activism, imitation, and the institutionalization of contentious practices’. Administrative science quarterly, 53(3): 460-491. Carnegie Trust (2014) Towards a Well Being Framework, Findings from the Well Being Round Table on Northern Ireland . Available at http://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/carnegieuktrust/wpcontentuploads/sites/64/2016/02/pub1455011423.pdf (accessed 5 November 2016) Chapman, T., Wilson, D. and Campbell, H. (2012) Restorative Justice Approaches in Local Conflicts of Northern Ireland. Belfast: University of Ulster. Chapman, T., Campbell, H., Wilson, D. and Mc Cready, P. (2016) Developing alternative understandings of security and justice through restorative justice approaches in intercultural settings within democratic societies. Leuven: European Union, Alternative Seventh Framework Programme. Community Justice Inspection Northern Ireland (CJINI)(2008) Community Restorative Justice Ireland Report of an inspection, June. Presented to the Houses of Parliament by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland under Section 49(2) of the Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002. Available at http://www.cjini.org/CJNI/files/c4/c48ff826-5ae1-4b46-a5b8-dc232ae6206e.pdf Cunningham, S. (2016) Northern Ireland among best in UK at creating jobs, PwC, Irish News 10 March, 2016. Available at http://www.irishnews.com/business/2016/03/10/news/northern-ireland-among-best-in-uk-atcreating- jobs-pwc-445427/. Eames, Ld R. and Bradley, D. (2009) Report of The Consultative Group on the Past (‘Eames Bradley Report’) 23 June. Presented to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, in accordance with the Terms of Reference given to the Consultative Group on the Past on 22 June 2007. Available at http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/victims/docs/consultative_group/cgp_230109_report.pdf. Eriksson, A. (2009) Justice in Transition: Community restorative justice in Northern Ireland. UK: Willan Publishing. Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D.A. (1997). A Worthwhile Venture? Promoting Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: University of Ulster. Ferguson, N., Burgess, M. and Hollywood, I. (2015) ‘Leaving Violence Behind: Disengaging from politically motivated violence in Northern Ireland’. Political Psychology 36(2): 199-214. Gaffikin, F. and Morrissey, M. (2011) ‘Community Cohesion and Social Inclusion Unravelling a Complex Relationship’. Urban studies 48(6): 1089-1118. Hayes, B. and MacAllister, I. (2013) Conflict to Peace: Politics and Society in Northern Ireland over half a century. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Kalyvas, S. (2003) ‘The ontology of political violence: Action and identity in civil wars’.Perspectives on Politics 1(3): 475-94. Kalyvas, S. (2006) The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kennedy, D.M. (2009) Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction. New York: Routledge. Knox, C. (2016) ‘Northern Ireland: where is the peace dividend?’ Policy & Politics April: 1-19. Kurtz, C.F. and Snowden, D.J. (2003) The new dynamics of strategy: sense-making in a complex-complicated world. IBM Systems Journal 42(3): 462-506. MacMillan, M. (2006) Seize the hour: When Nixon met Mao. London: John Murrey McEvoy, K. and Shirlow, P. (2009) ‘Reimagining DDR: Ex-combatants, leaderships and moral agency in conflict transformation’. Theoretical Criminology 13(1): 31-59. McEvoy, K. and Mika, H. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Critique of Informalism in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Criminology 42(3): 534-562. McKee, L.(2016) ‘Suicide among the Ceasefire babies’. Available at www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/01/...northern-ireland-suicide/424683/-. McVeigh, R. (2015) ‘Living the peace process in reverse: racist and British nationalism in Northern Ireland’. Race and Class 56(4): 3-25. Maloney, E. (2007) A Secret History of the IRA. London: Penguin Books. Mika, H. (2006) Community-based restorative justice in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Queens University Belfast. Mitchell, A. (2011) Lost in Transformation: Violent peace and peaceful conflict in Northern Ireland. London: Palgrave. Morrow, D., Mc Allister, B., Campbell, J. and Wilson, D. (2013) Mediated Dialogues and Systemic Change In Northern Ireland-‘Policing Our Divided Society’ (Pods) 1996-2003. Available at http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/4674/. Monaghan, R. (2008) ‘Community-based justice in Northern Ireland and South Africa’. International Criminal Justice Review 18(1): 83-105. Murphy, J. (2013) Policing for Peace in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Nolan, P. (2014) Northern Ireland Peace Monitoring Report, Number 3. Community Relations Council, Belfast. Northern Ireland Office (2005) 'A Shared Future' The Framework For Good Relations In Northern Ireland. Available at www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/asharedfuturepolicy2005.pdf. Northern Ireland Government (2015) ‘A Fresh Start’—The Stormont Agreement and Implementation Plan. Available at https://www.northernireland.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/nigov/a-fresh-startstormont- agreement_0.pdf. O’Neill, S., Ferry, F., Murphy, S., Corry, C., Bolton, D., Devine, B., Ennis, E. and Bunting, B. ( 2014) ‘Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma’. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91532.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091532. Payne, B., Conway, V., Bell, C., Falk, A., Flynn, A., McNeil, C. and Rice, F. (2010) Restorative Practices in Northern Ireland: A Mapping Exercise. Report commissioned by the Restorative Justice Forum (NI) and prepared by School of Law, Queen’s University, Belfast. Peled, Y. (2014) The Challenge of Ethnic Democracy: The State and Minority Groups in Israel, Poland and Northern Ireland. Milton Park: Routledge. PSNI (2015) Annual Report covering the period 1 April 2014-31 March, 2015. Police Service of Northern Ireland, Page 2. Available at https://www.psni.police.uk/globalassets/inside-thepsni/our-statistics/security-situationstatistics/ documents/annual_security_situation_statistics_report_2014-15.pdf. Reddy, P. (2012) Peace Operations and Restorative Justice: Groundwork for Post-Conflict Regeneration. Aldershot: Ashgate. Regan, P. (1996) ‘Conditions of successful third party intervention in intrastate wars’. Journal of Conflict Resolution 40(2): 336-59. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S.W. and Earls, F. (1997) ‘Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.’ Science 277(5328): 918-924. Shearing, C. and Johnston, L. (2005) ‘Justice in the Risk Society’. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 38(1): 25–38. Stevens Enquiry: Overview and Recommendations, 17 April 2003 Sir John Stevens QPM, DL Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service. Available at http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/collusion/stevens3/stevens3summary.htm. Taylor, C. (2007) A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap. Todd, J. (2015) Northern Ireland: Timing and sequencing of post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding. Centre for Research on Peace and Development Working Paper 39, Leuven, Belgium: KU Leuven. Toft, M. D. (2010) Securing the Peace: The Durable Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton:Princeton University Press. Tomlinson, M. (2012) ‘War, peace and suicide: The case of Northern Ireland’. International Sociology 27(4): 464-482. Walter, B. F. (1999) ‘Designing transitions from civil war: demobilization, democratization and commitments to peace’. International Security 24(1): 127-55. Walter, B. F. (2002) Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Wright, F. (1987) Northern Ireland: A Comparative Analysis. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. Wilson, D. (2016 a) “Integrated Healthcare” - Bridging the Access Gap for Transitional Age Youth”. Keynote Lecture, JFK University, Concord, CA. Wilson, D. (2016 b) Promoting A Restorative Society Culture? Some Restorative Learning Tasks emerging from Restorative Practices in Schools and Communities, Belfast. Belfast:The Understanding Conflict Trust.

    PY - 2016/11/15

    Y1 - 2016/11/15

    N2 - Paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland is unfinished but finishable. In response to the 2016 ‘Fresh Start’ Panel report (Northern Ireland Government 2016) on disbanding paramilitaries, is it time to finish through a restorative peace? This would require a focus on building justice as a better future for excluded working class neighbourhoods, challenging political and civil society organisations to unequivocally embrace the task of reconciliation, and resourcing a restorative strand of victim support complementing the valuable work of the current Commission for Victims and Survivors and the Victims and Survivors Service. Responsive adaptation of an ‘Operation Ceasefire’ policing strategy might also help underwrite restorative communities and restorative learning networks that do most of the work. Today’s elites could consider a shift from their neoliberal frames to acknowledge their own ambivalence around the complete rejection of violence and the class character of the Northern Ireland Troubles, so often trumped by the identity politics of that ‘ethnic frontier society’ (Wright 1987: 1-54). Restorative economic and social inclusion strategies at the level of micro-communities, within a ‘shared future’ vision (Northern Ireland Office 2005), forending the domination of the excluded by paramilitaries and other violent gangs are options. So are Operation Ceasefire strategies layered within a restorative societal fabric; not losing sight of the empirical insights of Toft (2010) and Walter (1999; 2002) that unless there is credible commitment in the years ahead to enforce the law against those who continue to rule neighbourhoods through violence—by the stick of locking them away if necessary—the carrots of peace will be gamed by the most ruthlessly militarised leaders. Complexity theory, responsive regulatory theory and restorative justice theory inform this policy analysis in response to the 2016 Paramilitaries Panel Report.

    AB - Paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland is unfinished but finishable. In response to the 2016 ‘Fresh Start’ Panel report (Northern Ireland Government 2016) on disbanding paramilitaries, is it time to finish through a restorative peace? This would require a focus on building justice as a better future for excluded working class neighbourhoods, challenging political and civil society organisations to unequivocally embrace the task of reconciliation, and resourcing a restorative strand of victim support complementing the valuable work of the current Commission for Victims and Survivors and the Victims and Survivors Service. Responsive adaptation of an ‘Operation Ceasefire’ policing strategy might also help underwrite restorative communities and restorative learning networks that do most of the work. Today’s elites could consider a shift from their neoliberal frames to acknowledge their own ambivalence around the complete rejection of violence and the class character of the Northern Ireland Troubles, so often trumped by the identity politics of that ‘ethnic frontier society’ (Wright 1987: 1-54). Restorative economic and social inclusion strategies at the level of micro-communities, within a ‘shared future’ vision (Northern Ireland Office 2005), forending the domination of the excluded by paramilitaries and other violent gangs are options. So are Operation Ceasefire strategies layered within a restorative societal fabric; not losing sight of the empirical insights of Toft (2010) and Walter (1999; 2002) that unless there is credible commitment in the years ahead to enforce the law against those who continue to rule neighbourhoods through violence—by the stick of locking them away if necessary—the carrots of peace will be gamed by the most ruthlessly militarised leaders. Complexity theory, responsive regulatory theory and restorative justice theory inform this policy analysis in response to the 2016 Paramilitaries Panel Report.

    KW - Restorative Justice

    KW - paramilitary violence

    KW - Northern Ireland

    KW - Operation Ceasefire strategies

    KW - Responsive Regulatory Theories

    M3 - Scholarly edition

    BT - Ending Residual Paramilitary Domination in Northern Ireland?Restorative Economic and Social Inclusion Strategies.

    ER -