Electrospinning/electrospraying coatings for metal microneedles: A design of experiments (DOE) and quality by design (QbD) approach

Radeyah Ali, Prina Mehta, Paraskevi Kyriaki Monou, Muhammad S. Arshad, Emmanuel Panteris, Manoochehr Rasekh, Neenu Singh, Omar Qutachi, Philippe Wilson, Dimitrios Tzetzis, Ming-Wei Chang, Dimitrios G. Fatouros, Zeeshan Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The research presented here shows QbD implementation for the optimisation of the key process parameters in electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA). Here, the electrosprayed nanoparticles and electrospun fibers consisting of a polymeric matrix and dye. Eight formulations were assessed consisting of 5% w/v of polycaprolactone (PCL) in dichloromethane (DCM) and 5% w/v polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in ethanol. A full factorial DOE was used to assess the various parameters (applied voltage, deposition distance, flow rate). Further particle and fiber analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), particle/fiber size distribution. In addition to this in vitro release studied were carried out using fluorescein and Rhodamine B as model dyes and in vitro permeation studies were applied. The results show a significant difference in the morphology of resultant structures as well as a more rapid release profile for the PVP particles and fibers in comparison to the sustained release profiles found with PCL. In vitro drug release studies showed 100% drug release after 7 days for PCL particles and showed 100% drug release within 120 min for PVP particles. The release kinetics and the permeation study showed that the MN successfully pierced the membrane and the electrospun MN coating released a large amount of the loaded drug within 6 h. This study has demonstrated the capability of these robust MNs to encapsulate a diverse range drugs within a polymeric matrix giving rise to the potential of developed personalised medical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-39
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Early online date29 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Nov 2020


  • Electrohydrodynamic atomisation
  • Quality by design
  • Transdermal delivery
  • Microneedles


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