The benefits of E-business have been widely promoted but the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector has lagged behind other sectors in the adoption of e-procurement. The prospective benefits for the AEC sector are suggested by the proven advantages of general e-procurement where adoption has been faster and deeper. However several studies indicated that barely 20% of documentation is tendered electronically suggesting there are barriers to e-procurement. In order to promote adoption of e-procurement in the AEC sector it is important to establish the status of the industry, and identify the drivers as well as barriers to e-procurement. This chapter provides a detailed discussion of the state of the industry and its drivers and barriers while ranking these according to its importance. It acts as a reference guide to allow those implementing e-procurement in construction to make informed decisions as to where to focus their efforts to achieve successful realisation incorporating the benefits and avoiding the pitfalls in the process. The chapter also provides some insight into the current state, trends and future directions of e-procurement in the construction industry.
|Title of host publication||Public Sector Transformation Processes and Internet Public Procurement: Decision Support Systems|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 11 Sept 2012|
Bibliographical noteReference text: AEC Software. (2012). Fasttrack Schedule 10. AEC Software website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from https://www.aecsoftware.com/
Albano, G. & Sparro, M. (2010). Flexible Strategies for Centralized Public Procurement. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(2), Fall 2010 – Article 4. 1-32.
Angeles, R. & Nath, R. (2007). "Business-to-business e-procurement: success factors and challenges to implementation". Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(2). 104 – 115.
Arminas, D. (2002). Are relationships going, going, gone?. Supply Management. March 14th 2002. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.supplymanagement.com/news/2002/are-relationships-going-going-gone/?show=recent
Arrowsmith, S. (2001). E-commerse policy and the EC procurement rules: The chasm between Rhetoric and reality. Kluwer Law International, 1447 – 1477.
Batenburg, R. (2007). E-procurement Adoption by European Firms: A Quantitative Analysis’. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 13(3). 182-192.
Betts, M., Black, P., Christensen, S., Dawson, E., Du, R., Duncan, W., Foo, E., & Gonzalez Nieto, J. (2006). Towards secure and legal e-tendering. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITCON), 11. Special Issue e-Commerce in construction. 89-102. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2006_7
BIPSolutions. (2004). Vault Secure E-Tendering Document Exchange service. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.sopo.org/rtfs/vaultfaq.htm
BIS. (2010). Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Statistics for the UK and Regions 2009 (SME Statistics). Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://stats.bis.gov.uk/ed/sme/
Blaby District Council. (2004). Document retention and destruction procedures and guidelines. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://idocs.blaby.gov.uk/external/council-democracy/dp-foi/foi-council-retention-schedule.pdf
Boeing. (1996). Supplier Network Technical Data Interchange (SNET-TDI). Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/doingbiz/tdi/faq.html
Bravosolution. (2012). Analyst Industry Reports. Bravosolution Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from https://www.bravosolution.com/cms/uk/resource-center/analyst-industry-reports/copy3_of_Knowledge%20Economy
Bravosolution. (2008). Government makes Key Cost and Effective Savings with innovative technology, Bravosolution Website, Retrieved January 28, 2012, from https://www.bravosolution.com/cms/news-events/press-center/08-july-2008-1/
Brazell, L. (2004). Electronic Signatures Law and Regulation: Law and Regulation. Sweet & Maxwell, UK.
Buchta, D., Eul, M. & Schulte-Croonenberg, H. (2010). Strategic IT Management, Increase value, control performance, reduce costs, 3rd edition, Gabler, Wiesbaden, Germany.
Building Smart. (2009). CITE Bills of Quantities Standard - Version 4.2. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://184.108.40.206:9080/buildingSmart/CITE/standards/ascii-flat-file-members-only/cite-bills-of-quantities-standard
Building Smart. (2009b). What is BuildingSmart? Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.buildingsmart.org.uk/buildingSMART/what-is-the-iai
Building Smart. (2009c). BuildingSmart international. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/
Building Smart. (2009d). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://buildingsmart-tech.org/implementation/faq
Cabinet Office. (1999). Modernising Government. White Paper. HMSO. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm43/4310/4310-00.htm
Cabinet Office. (2000). Progress report against the Executive Summary of the Modernising Government White Paper 1999. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/moderngov/whtpaper/summary_progress.htm#4d
Caffrey, L., Rogers, W., & Okot-Uma, O. (1999). Government Secure Intranets. Commonwealth Secretariat, London UK.
Carayannis, E. & Popescu, D. (2005). Profiling a methodology for economic growth and convergence: learning from the EU e-procurement experience for central and eastern European countries, Technovation, 25 (2005). 1-14.
Cartlidge, D. (2006). New aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice, 2nd Edition, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford UK.
Chaffey, D., ed. (2004) E-business and E-commerce Management, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall. 298.
Chen, S., Ruikar, K., Carrillo, P., Khosrowshahi, F. & Underwood, J. (2011). Construct IT for Business, e-Business in the Construction Industry, Loughborough University.
Christensen, J., Schmidt, M., & Larsen, M. (2002). The Industrial Dynamics of Internet Services. Paper presented at the DRUID Summer Conference. Industrial Dynamics of the New and Old Economy - who is embracing whom?. Copenhagen/Elsinore 6-8 June 2002. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.druid.dk/conferences/summer2002/Papers/Christensen.pdf
CITE. (2009). What is CITE?. BuildingSmart Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.buildingsmart.org.uk/about/cite/cite/?searchterm=CITE
Contract Journal.2003. Contractors urged to shun Tesco's Dutch auctions. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://business.highbeam.com/410604/article-1G1-110665058/contractors-urged-shun-tesco-dutch-auctions
Dacorum Borough Council. (2006). IEG5 report. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from www.bipsolutions.com/docstore/doc/12757.doc
Davila, A., Gupta, M., & Palmer, R. (2003). Moving Procurement Systems to the Internet : The Adoption and Use of E-Procurement Technology Models, European Management Journal, 21(1). 11-23.
DETNI. (2004). NICS Strategic Initiatives Appendix B. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.detini.gov.uk/nics_strategic_drivers.pdf
DETR. (2000). Best Value and Audit Commission Performance Indicators for 2001/2002: The gold book. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.communities.gov.uk/archived/publications/localgovernment/bestvalueperformance
DFP. (2009). Central Procurement Directorate Procurement Guidance Note 03/10 Procurement Control Limits. TSO Belfast UK. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.dfpni.gov.uk/index/procurement-2/cpd/cpd-policy-and-legislation/content_-_cpd_-_policy_-_procurement_guidance_notes/content_-_cpd_procurement_guidance_notes_pgn_03_-_10/pgn-03-10-26012011.pdf
DTI. (2006). Electronic Signatures Factsheet. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file34339.pdf
DTI. (2009). Electronic Signatures and associated Legislation. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file49952.pdf
Dumortier, J. & Van Eecke, P. (1999). The European draft directive on a common framework for electronic signatures. Computer Law & Security Report, 15(2). March–April 1999. 106–112.
Eadie, R., Perera, S., Heaney, G., & Carlisle, J. (2007). Drivers and Barriers to Public Sector e-procurement within Northern Ireland’s Construction Industry. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITCON), 12. 103-120. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2007_6
Eadie, R., Perera, S., & Heaney, G. (2010a). Identification of E-Procurement Drivers and Barriers for UK Construction Organisations and Ranking of these from the Perspective of Quantity Surveyors. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITCON), 15, 23-43. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2010_2
Eadie, R., Perera, S., & Heaney, G. (2010b). A Cross Discipline Comparison of Rankings of E-Procurement Drivers and Barriers for UK Construction Organisations. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITCON) 15, 217-233. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2010_17
Eadie, R., Perera, S., & Heaney, G. (2011). Analysis of the Use of e-procurement in the Public and Private Sectors of the UK Construction Industry. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon),16, 669 – 686. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2011_39
Eadie, R., Millar, P., Perera, S., Heaney, G. & Barton, G. (2012). E–readiness of construction contract forms and e–tendering software. International Journal of Procurement Management. 5(1/2012). 1-26. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://inderscience.metapress.com/content/9580t2p387mu1228/
ECI News. (2003). ECI Newsletter – Achieving Continuous Improvement and Value. Autumn 2003. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1530394/long_term_partnering_achieving_continuous
Egbu, C., Vines, M. & Tookey, J. (2004). The Role of Knowledge Management in E-Procurement Initiatives for Construction Organisations, Paper presented at ARCOM Twentieth Annual Conference 2004, September 1-3, Heriot Watt University, (Khosrowshami,F Ed.), Vol. 1, Arcom, University of Reading, Reading, 661 – 671.
E-Quantities. (2009). What is CITE?. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.e-quantities.com/bqfilter/cite.htm
Erridge, A., Fee, R. & McIlroy, J. (2001). Best Practice Procurement : Public and Private Sector Perspectives, Gover Publishing Company Burlington USA.
Eurlex. (2004a). European Union Directive 2004/17 coordinating the procurement procedures of entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004L0017:en:HTML
Eurlex. (2004b). European Union Directive 2004/18 on the coordination of procedures for the award of public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004L0018:En:HTML
European Commission. (2012). Your Europe Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/
European Commission. (2011a). Communication from the Commission — Corresponding values of the thresholds of Directives 2004/17/EC, 2004/18/EC and 2009/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 2011/C 353/01 (2011). Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:353:FULL:EN:PDF
European Commission (2011b). Public consultation (Green Paper) on expanding the use of e-Procurement in the EU. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/consultations/docs/2010/e-procurement/synthesis_en.pdf
European Commission. (2010). ICT and e-Business for an Innovative and Sustainable Economy, 7th Synthesis Report of the Sectoral e-Business Watch (2010). Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.ebusiness-watch.org/key_reports/documents/EBR09-10.pdf
European Commission. (2007). The European E-business report, A portrait of e-business in 10 sectors of the EU economy, 5th Synthesis Report of the e-Business W@tch, Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/archives/e-business-watch/key_reports/documents/EBR06.pdf
Forrest, A. (1999). Fifty Ways towards a Learning Organisation. Stylus Publishing Inc. Sterling USA.
Forrester. (2001-2003). ISM/Forrester Report on eBusiness (Released Quarterly Last addition October 2003). Institute for Supply Management (ISM). Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.forrester.com/rb/Research/ismforrester_report_on_ebusiness_q1_2003/q/id/16792/t/2
Gebauer, J., Beam, C. & Segev. A. (1998). Impact of the Internet on Purchasing Practices, Acquisitions Review Quarterly, 5(2). 167-184.
Glover, A. (2008). Accelerating the SME economic engine: through transparent, simple and strategic procurement. HM Treasury :London.
Government Gateway. (2009). Government Gateway. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.gateway.gov.uk/
Gray, P. (2006). The Management, Retention and Disposal of Administrative Records, Scottish Executive Health Department, Directorate of Primary Care and Community care. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/mels/HDL2006_28.pdf.
Gunasekarana, A., McGaughey, R., Ngaic,E. & Rai, B. (2009). Impact of e-procurement: Experiences from implementation in the UK public sector, Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 13 (2007). 294–303.
GXS (2005), EDIFACT Standards Overview Tutorial. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://edi.gxs.com/wp-content/themes/EDI/media/Tutor_EDIFACT_GXS.pdf
Hackett, M., Robinson, I. & Stratham, G. (2007). The Aqua Group Guide to procurement, tendering and Contract Administration. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Hampson, T. (2012). Fining public sector staff for data breaches 'will not work'. UKauthorITy. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.ukauthority.com/NewsArticle/tabid/64/Default.aspx?id=3499
Harindranath, G., Dyerson, R. & Barnes, D. (2008). ICT Adoption and Use in UK SMEs: a Failure of Initiatives?. Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, 11(2), 91 – 96. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.ejise.com
Hawking, P., Stein, A., Wyld, D. & Forster, S. (2004). E-Procurement: Is the Ugly Duckling Actually a Swan Down Under?, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 16(1 2004). 1-26.
Hawser, A. (2008). Who should be liable for on-line fraud?. Fighting Fraud. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://fightingfraud.blogspot.com/2008/10/who-should-be-liable-for-online-fraud.html.
Hewson Group. (2003). e-Government: Can it Meet Public Expectations through a Successful CRM Programme?. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://crmguru.custhelp.com/ci/fattach/get/314/
HM Government. (2012). Electronic Communications Act 2000. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/7/part/II/data.pdf
HM Government. (2009). What is the Government Gateway?. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Diol1/DoItOnline/Doitonlinemotoring/DG_10035603
Huber, B., Sweeney, E. & Smyth, A. (2004). Purchasing consortia and electronic markets – a procurement direction in integrated supply chain management. Electronic Markets, 14(4). 284-294.
IAI. (2005). IAI Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://eetd.lbl.gov/eetd-software-iai.html
Improvement and Development Agency (IDEA).(2004). The Benefits of e-Procurement, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, HMSO, UK. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/aio/70780
Improvement and Development Agency (IDEA).(2008). e-Tendering. IDEA Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=82667
Irani, Z. & Love, P. (2002). Developing a frame of reference for ex‑ante IT/IS investment evaluation. European Journal of Information Systems, 11(1), 74-82.
Islington Council. (2008). Paper-free working improves service delivery for Islington Council. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.publictechnology.net/content/18250
Jennings, D. (2001). Secure Trading, Supply Management. 6th September 2001. 52-53.
Julià-Barceló, R. & Vinje, T. (1998). Towards a European framework for digital signatures and encryption: The European commission takes a step forward for confidential and secure electronic communications. Computer Law & Security Report, 14(2), March-April 1998, 79-86.
Julia-Barcelo, R. (1999). Electronic Contracts : A New Legal Framework for Electronic Contracts: The EU Electronic Commerce Proposal, Computer Law & Security Report, 15(3), 147–158.
Kalakota, R., Tapscott, D. & Robinson, M. (2001). E Business 2.0 : Roadmap for success, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New Jersey USA.
Katok, E. & Roth, A. (2004). Adoption of electronic commerce tools in business procurement: enhanced buying center structure and processes, Management Science, 50(8), 1044-1063.
Kivijärvi, H., Hallikainen, P. & Penttinen, E. (2011). Supporting the Supplier Scheduling Decisions in the E-Invoicing Implementation Projects - An Application of the ANP Method. Proceedings of 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 4-7 Jan. 2011, Kauai, HI. 1-12.
Kheng, C. & Al-hawamdeh, S. (2002). The Adoption of Electronic Procurement in Singapore. Electronic Commerce Research, 2(1-2), 61-73.
Kim, J. & Shunk, D. (2003). Matching indirect procurement process with different B2B e-procurement systems. Computers in Industry, 53(2 2004), 153-164.
Knudsen, D. (2003). Aligning corporate strategy, procurement strategy and e-procurement tools, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 33(8), 720-734.
Kong, C., Li, H., & Love P. (2001). An e commerce system for construction material procurement, Construction Innovation, 1(1), 43 54.
Kransdorff, A. (1998). Corporate Amnesia Keeping the Know-how in the company. Butterworth-Heinemann Jordan Hill Oxford UK.
Latham, Sir M. (1994). Constructing the Team, Joint Government of Industry Review of Procurement and Contractual Arrangements in the U.K. Construction Industry, HMSO, London.
Lenz, J. (2012). Taking dynamic signatures seriously, Biometric Technology Today, 2011(11–12), November–December 2011, 9–11.
Li, E. & Du, T. (2005). Advances in Electronic Business. 1. Idea Group Publishing London, UK.
Martin, J. (2009). 2009 BCIS eTendering Survey Report. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.bcis.co.uk/downloads/2009_BCIS_eTendering_Survey_Report_pdf__2_.pdf
Martin, J. (2003). E-Procurement and extranets in the UK Construction industry, Conference paper given at FIG Working Week, April 13th-17th 2003, Paris, France. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from www.fig.net/pub/fig_2003/TS_6/TS6_4_Martin.pdf
McIntosh, G. & Sloan, B. (2001). The potential impact of electronic procurement and global sourcing within the UK construction industry, Proceedings of Arcom 17th Annual Conference 2001, (Akintoye A. Editor), University of Salford, September 2001, 231 239.
McMullan, C. (2005). Letter to CPD. Central Procurement Directorate, Clare House Belfast
Min, H. & Galle, W. (1999). Electronic commerce usage in business-to business purchasing. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 19(9), 909-921.
Minahan, T. & Degan, G. (2001). Best Practices in e-Procurement, Boston: Aberdeen Group. The Abridged Report. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.inkoopportal.com/inkoopportal/download/common/e-procurement_1_.pdf
National Archives. (2012). Records Management: Retention Scheduling 5. Contractual Records Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/information-management/sched_contractual.pdf
National Joint Consultative Committee for Building (NJCC). (1996). Code of Practice for two stage selective tendering. NJCC ,London, UK.
National Procurement Strategy for Local Government. (2003). National Procurement Strategy for Local Government in England 2003-2006. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/localgovernment/nationalprocurementstrategy
NHS Purchasing and supply agency. (2004). NHS PASA eAuctions pilot report. National Health Service June 2004.
NIFHA. (2007). NIFHA Database. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.nifha.org/housing-association-database/
OGC. (2003). Building on Success. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.ccinw.com/images/publications/OGC%20Acheiving%20Excellence%20in%20Construction.pdf
OGC. (2005). e-Procurement in Action – A guide to e-procurement for the public sector. Office of Government Commerce. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http//www.umic.pt/images/stories/publicacoes/embedded_object.pdf
Office of the Inspector General (OIG). (1997). Audit of the Office of Program and Integrity Reviews` Special Studies. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://oig.ssa.gov/audit-office-program-and-integrity-reviews-special-studies
Panayiotou, N., Sotiris, G. & Tatsiopoulos, I. (2003). An e-procurement system for governmental purchasing. International Journal of Production Economics, 90 (1-2004), 79-102.
Paulo, A., Bráulio, A., Tiago, O., Varajão, Q. & Eduardo, J. (2010). Electronic Procurement: Dealing with Supplier Adoption. Book Chapter in Cruz-Cunha, M., Putnik, G. & Trigo, A. (Eds.), ENTERprise Information Systems, Communications in Computer and Information Science. 109. 168-179. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Pearman, R. (2002). E-Bidding: Who can you trust?. Contract Journal. 24th April 2002. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://business.highbeam.com/410604/article-1G1-85005041/ebidding-can-you-trust
Pena-Mora, F., & Choudary, K. (2001). Web-Centric Framework For Secure And Legally Binding Electronic Transactions in Large-scale A/E/C Projects, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 15(4), 248-259.
Pritchard, S. (2006). How can so many businesses cope without computers?. Financial Times, London, Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/1/cc145e2e-47f5-11db-a42e-0000779e2340.html
Przymus, K. (2003). E-Procurement for a Municipal Government. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.toronto.ca/inquiry/inquiry_site/cd/gg/add_pdf/77/Procurement/Electronic_Documents/Miscellaneous/Municipal_EProcurement_Study.pdf
PublicTechnology. (2004). Next-generation Energis-supplied Government Secure Intranet goes live. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.publictechnology.net/content/568
Raghavan, N., & Prabhu, M. (2004). Object-oriented design of a distributed agent-based framework for e-Procurement. Production Planning & Control, 15(7), October 2004, 731-741.
Rankin, J., Chen, Y. & Christian, A. (2006). E-Procurement in the Atlantic Canadian AEC Industry. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITCON), 11, Special Issue e-Commerce in construction, 75-87. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2006_6
Rawlings, J. (1998). Electronic Commerce on the Internet –Part 1. Network Security. 1998 (7), July 1998, 11–14.
Records Management Society of Great Britain, Local Government Group. (2003). General Disposal Guidelines for Local Authorities. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.esd.org.uk/foi/records management retention guidlines for LG.pdf
Reilly, D. (1999). Secure Electronic Transactions : An Overview. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.davidreilly.com/topics/electronic_commerce/essays/secure_electronic_transactions.html
Ribeiro, F. & Henriques, P. (2001). How knowledge can improve e business in construction. Proceedings of 2nd International Postgraduate Research Conference in the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford, Blackwell Publishing.
RICS. (2007). RICS E-Tendering means paper free procurement. RICS, UK. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.bcis.co.uk/site/scripts/news_article.aspx?newsID=73
RICS. (2005b). E-Tendering: RICS Guidance Note. RICS, UK. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from https://www.ricsetendering.com/web/RICS%20Guidance%20Note%20-%20e-Tendering.pdf
Rowlinson, S. & McDermott, P. (1999). Procurement Systems. E& FN Spon
Smeltzer, L. & Carr, A. (2003). Electronic Reverse Auctions Promises, Risks and Conditions for Success. Industrial Marketing Management, 32(6), 481-488.
Smith, J. (2006). Blogs making their impact felt. BBC Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4976276.stm
Sone, J. (2011). E-Governance in Central Texas: Patterns of e-Gov Adoption in Smaller Cities. Applied Research Projects, Texas State University-San Marcos. Paper 381. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/381
Spalde, C., Sullivan, F., de Lusignan, S. & Madeley, J. (2006). e-Prescribing, Efficiency, Quality: Lessons from the Computerization of UK Family Practice, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(5), 470–475.
Thoren, C. (2004). The Procurement of Usable and Accessible Software. Information Access in the Information Society, 3(1), 102-106.
Teich, J., Wallenius, H., Wallenius, J., & Koppius, O. (2004). Emerging multiple issue e-auctions. European Journal of Operational Research, 159(1), 1-16.
Tindsley, G. & Stephenson, P. (2008). E-Tendering Process Within Construction: A UK Perspective, Tsinghua Science & Technology, 13(1), October 2008, 273-278.
Tran, Q., Huang, D., Liu, B., & Ekram, H. (2011). A Construction Enterprise's Readiness Level in Implementing E-Procurement: A System Engineering Assessment Model, Systems Engineering Procedia, 2(2011), 131-141. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211381911001056
TSO. (2009). Public Contracts (Amendment) Regulations 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2009/2992/contents/made
TSO. (2006). Public Contracts Regulations 2006. HMSO London. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2006/uksi_20060005_en.pdf
UKonline. (2003). UK online Annual Report 2003. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://collection.europarchive.org/tna/20040722012352/http://e-government.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/MediaCentre/NewOnSiteArticle/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4006060&chk=rIWVHj
UNECE. (2008). UNEDIFACT Draft Directory. UNECE Website. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.unece.org/trade/untdid/welcome.htm
Wang, M. (2007). Do the regulations on electronic signatures facilitate international electronic commerce? A critical review. Computer Law & Security Report, 23(1), 2007, 32-41.
Wang, Y., Chang, C. & Heng, M. (2004). The levels of information technology adoption, business network, and strategic position model for evaluating supply chain integration. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 5(2), 85-98.
Wamuziri, S. & Seywright, A. (2005). Procurement of construction projects in local government. Municipal Engineer, 158(2),145.
Westcott, T. & Mayer, P. (2002). Electronic Tendering : Is it delivering? A UK and European Perspective, Proceedings of RICS foundation construction and building research conference – COBRA 2002” Nottingham Trent University ISBN 1-84233-074-8.
Williams, R. (2007). Briefing: The Public Contracts Regulations 2006, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Management Procurement and Law, May 2007 MP2, 45-49. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/content/article/10.1680/mpal.2007.160.2.45
Williams, C. & Lynnes, R. (2002). e-Business Without the Commerce, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, WEF/AWWA Joint Management 2002 , pp. 298-303(6).
Wong, C. & Sloan, B. (2004). Use of ICT for E-Procurement in the UK Construction Industry : A Survey of SMES Readiness, in Khosrowshami,F (Ed.), Proceedings of ARCOM Twentieth Annual Conference 2004, September 1-3, Heriot Watt University, Vol. 1, Arcom, University of Reading, Reading, 620 – 628.
World Trade Organisation (WTO). (1994). The Uruguay Round Final Act Annex 4 in Legal texts: the WTO agreements. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/final_e.htm
Wright, B. (1999). Electronic Signatures: Making Electronic Signatures a reality, Computer Law & Security Review, 15(6), November–December 1999, 401–402.