Electrochemical Growth of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes: The Effect of Surface Roughness and Applied Potential

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Abstract

Aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes may be grown on the surface of titanium metal by electrochemical oxidation in the presence of fluoride ion. There are a number of salient parameters that have been reported to affect the nanotube growth i.e., the nature, pH and concentration of the fluoride electrolyte, the cell potential and process time for anodisation. Furthermore, it has been reported that the nanotubes as grown are amorphous and can be converted to a mixture of anatase and rutile crystalline phases by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. There have been no studies reported investigating the effect of surface roughness of the parent titanium metal on nanotube growth. In this work the electrochemical growth of titanium oxide nanotubes on titanium foil was investigated using an ammonium fluoride/ammonium sulphate electrolyte. The results confirm that the anodisation potential controls pore diameter. The surface coverage of nanotubes was dependent on the surface roughness of the parent titanium metal. AFM measurements on untreated titanium foil showed relatively high microscale roughness and low nanoscale roughness. SEM analysis of these samples showed nanotube growth to be confined to depressions or valleys on the surface and the nanotubes were of uniform pore diameter. Mechanically polishing the surface of the parent titanium decreased the microscale roughness and increased the nanoscale roughness which, resulted in more uniform surface coverage. However, this led to an increased variation in pore diameter and shape of the nanotubes. XRD was used to determine crystal structure before and after annealing at 460 degrees C.
LanguageEnglish
Pages4215
JournalJournal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Titanium oxides
titanium oxides
Nanotubes
nanotubes
surface roughness
Surface roughness
Titanium
titanium
roughness
fluorides
Metals
porosity
Fluorides
microbalances
Titanium dioxide
Metal foil
Electrolytes
foils
electrolytes
metals

Cite this

@article{15174fe6cc7c4b1983725f87fe4dda19,
title = "Electrochemical Growth of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes: The Effect of Surface Roughness and Applied Potential",
abstract = "Aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes may be grown on the surface of titanium metal by electrochemical oxidation in the presence of fluoride ion. There are a number of salient parameters that have been reported to affect the nanotube growth i.e., the nature, pH and concentration of the fluoride electrolyte, the cell potential and process time for anodisation. Furthermore, it has been reported that the nanotubes as grown are amorphous and can be converted to a mixture of anatase and rutile crystalline phases by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. There have been no studies reported investigating the effect of surface roughness of the parent titanium metal on nanotube growth. In this work the electrochemical growth of titanium oxide nanotubes on titanium foil was investigated using an ammonium fluoride/ammonium sulphate electrolyte. The results confirm that the anodisation potential controls pore diameter. The surface coverage of nanotubes was dependent on the surface roughness of the parent titanium metal. AFM measurements on untreated titanium foil showed relatively high microscale roughness and low nanoscale roughness. SEM analysis of these samples showed nanotube growth to be confined to depressions or valleys on the surface and the nanotubes were of uniform pore diameter. Mechanically polishing the surface of the parent titanium decreased the microscale roughness and increased the nanoscale roughness which, resulted in more uniform surface coverage. However, this led to an increased variation in pore diameter and shape of the nanotubes. XRD was used to determine crystal structure before and after annealing at 460 degrees C.",
author = "GR Dale and JWJ Hamilton and PSM Dunlop and P Lemoine and JA Byrne",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1166/jnn.2009.M35",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "4215",
journal = "Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology",
issn = "1533-4880",
number = "7",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrochemical Growth of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes: The Effect of Surface Roughness and Applied Potential

AU - Dale, GR

AU - Hamilton, JWJ

AU - Dunlop, PSM

AU - Lemoine, P

AU - Byrne, JA

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes may be grown on the surface of titanium metal by electrochemical oxidation in the presence of fluoride ion. There are a number of salient parameters that have been reported to affect the nanotube growth i.e., the nature, pH and concentration of the fluoride electrolyte, the cell potential and process time for anodisation. Furthermore, it has been reported that the nanotubes as grown are amorphous and can be converted to a mixture of anatase and rutile crystalline phases by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. There have been no studies reported investigating the effect of surface roughness of the parent titanium metal on nanotube growth. In this work the electrochemical growth of titanium oxide nanotubes on titanium foil was investigated using an ammonium fluoride/ammonium sulphate electrolyte. The results confirm that the anodisation potential controls pore diameter. The surface coverage of nanotubes was dependent on the surface roughness of the parent titanium metal. AFM measurements on untreated titanium foil showed relatively high microscale roughness and low nanoscale roughness. SEM analysis of these samples showed nanotube growth to be confined to depressions or valleys on the surface and the nanotubes were of uniform pore diameter. Mechanically polishing the surface of the parent titanium decreased the microscale roughness and increased the nanoscale roughness which, resulted in more uniform surface coverage. However, this led to an increased variation in pore diameter and shape of the nanotubes. XRD was used to determine crystal structure before and after annealing at 460 degrees C.

AB - Aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes may be grown on the surface of titanium metal by electrochemical oxidation in the presence of fluoride ion. There are a number of salient parameters that have been reported to affect the nanotube growth i.e., the nature, pH and concentration of the fluoride electrolyte, the cell potential and process time for anodisation. Furthermore, it has been reported that the nanotubes as grown are amorphous and can be converted to a mixture of anatase and rutile crystalline phases by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. There have been no studies reported investigating the effect of surface roughness of the parent titanium metal on nanotube growth. In this work the electrochemical growth of titanium oxide nanotubes on titanium foil was investigated using an ammonium fluoride/ammonium sulphate electrolyte. The results confirm that the anodisation potential controls pore diameter. The surface coverage of nanotubes was dependent on the surface roughness of the parent titanium metal. AFM measurements on untreated titanium foil showed relatively high microscale roughness and low nanoscale roughness. SEM analysis of these samples showed nanotube growth to be confined to depressions or valleys on the surface and the nanotubes were of uniform pore diameter. Mechanically polishing the surface of the parent titanium decreased the microscale roughness and increased the nanoscale roughness which, resulted in more uniform surface coverage. However, this led to an increased variation in pore diameter and shape of the nanotubes. XRD was used to determine crystal structure before and after annealing at 460 degrees C.

U2 - 10.1166/jnn.2009.M35

DO - 10.1166/jnn.2009.M35

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 4215

JO - Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

T2 - Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

JF - Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

SN - 1533-4880

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ER -