Additively manufactured composite specimens exhibit anisotropic properties, meaning that the elastic response changes with respect to orientation. Both in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties are important for designing purpose. Recent studies have characterised the in-plane performance. In this study, however, through-thickness tensile strength of 3D polymer composites were determined by printing of continuous carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyamide-based composite, manufactured using a Markforged Two 3D printer. This paper discusses sample fabrication and geometry, adhesive used, and testing procedure. Test standards used to determine out-of-plane properties are tedious as most of the premature failures occur between the specimens and the tabs. Two types of samples were printed according to ASTM flatwise tension standard and the results were compared to determine the geometry effect on the interlaminar strength. This test method consists of subjecting the printed sample to a uniaxial tensile force normal to the plane. With this method, the acceptable failure modes for tensile strength must be internal to the structure, not between the sample and the end tabs. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) was carried out to observe the porosity. Surface behaviour was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to see the voids and the distribution of the fibres in the samples. The results showed consistent values for tensile strength and elastic modulus for Araldite glue after initial trials (with some other adhesives) to determine a suitable choice of adhesive for bonding the samples with the tabs. Circular specimens have higher tensile strength and elastic modulus as compared to rectangular specimens.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Northwest Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union?s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB).
Funding: The Northwest Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- 3D printing
- Additive manufacturing
- Carbon fibre
- Computed tomography
- Polymer composites