Glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypepticle (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are important enteroendocrine hormones that are rapidly degraded by an ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV to yield truncated metabolites GIP(3-42) and GLP-1 (9-36)amide. In this study, we investigated the effects of sub-chronic exposure to these major circulating forms of GIP and GLP-1 on blood glucose control and endocrine pancreatic function in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. A once daily injection of either peptide for 14 days had no effect on body weight, food intake or pancreatic insulin content or islet morphology. GLP-1(9-36)amide also had no effect on plasma glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion. Mice receiving GIP(3-42) exhibited small but significant improvements in non-fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and glycaemic response to feeding. Accordingly, plasma insulin responses were unchanged suggesting that the observed enhancement of insulin sensitivity was responsible for the improvement in glycaemic control. These data indicate that sub-chronic exposure to GIP and GLP-1 metabolites does not result in physiological impairment of insulin secretion or blood glucose control. GIP(3-42) might exert an overall beneficial effect by improving insulin sensitivity through extrapancreatic action.
Parker, JC., Lavery, KS., Irwin, N., Green, BD., Greer, B., Harriott, P., ... Flatt, P. (2006). Effects of sub-chronic exposure to naturally occurring N-terminally truncated metabolites of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GIP(3-42) and GLP-1 (9-36)amide, on insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in ob/ob mice. Journal of Endrocrinology, 191(1), 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.06904