Effects of physical properties of feed on microbial ecology and survivalof Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the pig gastrointestinal tract

Patrick Naughton, Lene Mikkelsen, Mette Skou Hedemann, Bent Borg Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A two-by-two factorial experiment with pigs was conducted to study the effect of feed grinding (fine and coarse) and feed processing (pelleted and nonpelleted) on physicochemical properties, microbial populations, and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Results demonstrated a strong effect of diet on parameters measured in the stomachs of the pigs, whereas the effect was less in the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse nonpelleted (C-NP) diet showed more solid gastric content with higher dry matter content than pigs fed the fine nonpelleted (F-NP), coarse pelleted (C-P), or fine pelleted (F-P) diet. Pigs fed the C-NP diet also showed significantly increased number of anaerobic bacteria (P <0.05), increased concentrations of organic acids, and reduced pH in the stomach. In addition, pigs fed the C-NP diet showed increased in vitro death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in content from the stomach (P <0.001). Pigs fed the C-NP diet had a significantly higher concentration of undissociated lactic acid in gastric content than pigs fed the other diets (P <0.001). A strong correlation between the concentration of undissociated lactic acid and the death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 was found. In the distal small intestine, cecum, and midcolon, significantly lower numbers of coliform bacteria were observed in pigs fed the coarse diets than in pigs fed the fine diets (P <0.01). Pigs fed the C-NP diet showed the lowest number of coliform bacteria in these segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse diets showed increased concentration of butyric acid in the cecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.10) compared with pigs fed the fine diets. It was concluded that feeding a coarsely ground meal feed to pigs changes the physicochemical and microbial properties of content in the stomach, which decreases the survival of Salmonella during passage through the stomach. In this way the stomach acts as a barrier preventing harmful bacteria from entering and proliferating in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3485-3492
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume70
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2004

Keywords

  • Physical Properties of Feed
  • Coarse Ground Meal
  • Salmonella

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