Effects of Fire Location and Forced Air Volume on Fire Development for Single-Ended Tunnel Fire with Forced Ventilation

Jinlong Zhao, Zhenhua Wang, Zhenqi Hu, Xinyuan Cui, Xiandu Peng, Jianping Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Single-ended tunnels are a typical structure and an important part during tunnel construction. In the case of a fire in a single-ended tunnel, forced ventilation is commonly used to create a safe area near the excavation face. This work is aimed at examining the effects of fire location and air volume on fire development for single-ended tunnel fires with forced ventilation. A single-ended tunnel was built in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), and twenty simulation tests were carried out. In the simulation, the distribution of flow field, temperature, and CO concentration in the tunnel were measured and analyzed. The results show that three regions can be identified based on airflow directions and velocity: (1) turbulent flow zone, (2) turbulent flow transition zone, and (3) steady flow zone. It was found that the maximum ceiling temperature rise decreases first with the distance between the fire source and the excavation face (XL), and then increases with a further increase in XL. The simulation results also showed that CO can easily accumulate on the ventilation duct side at the fire source position and the opposite side of the ventilation duct 5.0–15.0 m downstream of the fire source. Both the CO concentration and the maximum ceiling temperature rise decrease with increasing air volume, while the larger forced air volume will result in a higher risk for the downstream regions. The present results are of practical importance in firefighting and personnel evacuation in single-ended tunnels with a forced ventilation system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number111
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number3
Early online date11 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 11 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Fire and Rescue Department Ministry of Emergency Management (No. 2022XFZD04), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51906253), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2020QN05).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • single-ended tunnel
  • FDS simulation
  • fire location
  • forced air volume
  • temperature distribution
  • CO concentration


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