Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Adherence to Individual Home- or Gym-Based Exercise Training among Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Erika Pinelli, Giuseppe Barone, Sofia Marini, Francesco Benvenuti, Marie H Murphy, Mikko Julin, Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon Von Stengel, Stefano Di Paolo, Laura Dallolio, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa, Raffaele Zinno, Laura Bragonzoni

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Adherence is important for an exercise program's efficacy. This study aims at investigating whether the COVID-19 lockdown had different consequences on the adherence to an exercise program specifically designed for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis when administered as individual home training (IHT) or gym group training (GGT). At the start of the lockdown, which imposed the temporary closure of any gym activities, GGT participants were invited to continue to exercise at home. IHT participants continued to exercise at home as usual. Adherence was recorded via logs and measured as the percentage of exercise sessions actually performed out of the total number of scheduled sessions in three 1-month periods: one before (PRE) and two after (M1 and M2) the beginning of lockdown. Before lockdown, IHT (66.8% ± 26.6) and GGT (76.3% ± 26.6) adherence were similar. During lockdown, IHT participation increased (M1: 81.5% ± 31.0; M2: 88.0% ± 28.3), while that of GGT showed no statistical differences (M1: 79.4% ± 34.2; M2: 80.6% ± 36.4). Exercise protocols based on supervised gym practice must consider the possibility of disruptive events, which could cause a sudden interruption of gym activity and include educational initiatives to instruct participants to exercise effectively and safely without a trainer's direct supervision.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2441
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number5
Early online date2 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished online - 2 Mar 2021


  • COVID-19
  • adherence
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • postmenopausal osteoporosis
  • Adherence
  • Exercise
  • Physical activity
  • Postmenopausal osteoporosis


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