Recent studies have identified a beneficial role for peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) on pancreatic beta-cell function and survival. These effects are linked to the activation of neuropeptide Y1 receptors (NPYR1s) by PYY(1-36). However, PYY(1-36) is subject to rapid degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), resulting is the loss of NPYR1 activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop 2 enzymatically stable PYY(1-36) analogues, namely, (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) and PYY(1-36)(Lys12PAL), with further structural modifications to enhance NPYR1 specificity. As expected, (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) was fully resistant to DPP-4-mediated degradation in vitro, whereas PYY(1-36) and PYY(1-36)(Lys12PAL) were both liable to DPP-4 breakdown. PYY(1-36) and (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) induced significant reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from BRIN BD11 cells, but only PYY(1-36) diminished alanine-stimulated insulin secretion. In contrast, PYY(1-36)(Lys12PAL) had no impact on GSIS or alanine-induced insulin release. All 3 PYY peptides significantly enhanced proliferation in BRIN BD11 and 1.1B4 beta-cell lines, albeit only at the highest concentration examined, 10-6 M, for (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) and PYY(1-36)(Lys12PAL) in BRIN BD11 cells. Regarding the protection of beta-cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, PYY(1-36) induced clear protective effects. Both (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) and PYY(1-36)(Lys12PAL) offered some protection against apoptosis in BRIN BD11 cells, but were significantly less efficacious than PYY(1-36). Similarly, in 1.1B4 cells, both PYY analogues (10-6 M) protected against cytokine-induced apoptosis, but (P3L31P34)PYY(1-36) was significantly less effective than PYY(1-36). All 3 PYY peptides had no impact on refeeding in overnight fasted mice. These data underline the beta-cell benefits of PYY(1-36) and highlight the challenges of synthesising stable, bioactive, NPYR1-specific, PYY(1-36) analogues.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes|
|Publication status||Published - 17 Jun 2019|
- amino acid substitution
- insulin secretion
- Beta cell
- peptide YY (PYY)