Effective Sport Psychology Consulting Relationships: Two Coach Case Studies

Lee-Ann Sharp, Ken Hodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the components necessary for the development of an effective applied sport psychology consulting relationship between a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and presented. Following purposeful sampling methods, members of two SPC-Coach consulting relationships (2 SPCs and 2 elite coaches) participated in individual interviews to discuss their perceptions of effective consulting relationships. Inductive \content analysis was conducted to search for common themes both within and across the two case studies (Weber, 1990). Three a coach. To address this purpose, two SPC-Coach consulting relationship case studies will be categories emerged with shared similarities between both case study relationships as important to the development of effective consulting relationships between SPCs and coaches; (a) SPC knowledge; (b) trust; and (c) friendship. In addition, two categories individual to each of the case study consulting relationships emerged; (d) SPC fitting in with team culture; and (e) flexibility.
LanguageEnglish
Pages313-324
JournalThe Sport Psychologist
Volume27
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013

Fingerprint

sport psychology
management counsulting
coach
friendship
content analysis
flexibility
elite
interview

Keywords

  • consulting relationships
  • effectiveness
  • coaching
  • knowledge
  • trust

Cite this

@article{ce5e00a320934725a1c0629251d292b3,
title = "Effective Sport Psychology Consulting Relationships: Two Coach Case Studies",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to investigate the components necessary for the development of an effective applied sport psychology consulting relationship between a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and presented. Following purposeful sampling methods, members of two SPC-Coach consulting relationships (2 SPCs and 2 elite coaches) participated in individual interviews to discuss their perceptions of effective consulting relationships. Inductive \content analysis was conducted to search for common themes both within and across the two case studies (Weber, 1990). Three a coach. To address this purpose, two SPC-Coach consulting relationship case studies will be categories emerged with shared similarities between both case study relationships as important to the development of effective consulting relationships between SPCs and coaches; (a) SPC knowledge; (b) trust; and (c) friendship. In addition, two categories individual to each of the case study consulting relationships emerged; (d) SPC fitting in with team culture; and (e) flexibility.",
keywords = "consulting relationships, effectiveness, coaching, knowledge, trust",
author = "Lee-Ann Sharp and Ken Hodge",
note = "Reference text: References Andersen, M.B. (2000). Beginnings: Intakes and the initiation of relationships. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing Sport Psychology (pp. 3–16). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Andersen, M.B. (2004). Transference and countertransference. In G.S. Kolt & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Psychology in the physical and manual therapies (pp. 71–80). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone. Anderson, A., Miles, A., Robinson, P., & Mahoney, C. (2004). Evaluating the athlete’s perception of the sport psychologist’s effectiveness: What should we be assessing? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 255–277. doi:10.1016/ S1469-0292(03)00005-0 Andersen, M.B., & Williams-Rice, B.T. (1996). Supervision in the education and training of sport psychology service providers. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 278–290. Bowes, I., & Jones, R.L. (2006). Working at the edge of chaos: Understanding coaching as a complex, interpersonal system. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 235–245. Fifer, A., Henschen, K.P., Gould, D., & Ravizza, K. (2008). What works when working with athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 356–377. Fletcher, D., & Scott, M. (2010). Psychological sress in sports coaches: A review of concepts, research and practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 127–137. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410903406208 Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An integrated organisational model. In S.M. Murphy (Ed.), Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147–175). Champaign: Human Kinetics. Gardner, F.L. (2001). Applied sport psychology in professional sports: The team psychologist. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 32(1), 34–39. doi:10.1037/0735- 7028.32.1.34 Gelso, C.J., & Hays, J.A. (1998). The psychotherapy relationship: Theory, research, and practice. London: John Wiley & Sons. Gould, D., Greenleaf, C., Guinan, D., & Chung, Y. (2002). A survey of U.S. Olympic coaches: Variables perceived to have influenced athlete performances and coach effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 229–250. Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (1987). Psychological foundations of coaching: Similarities and differences among intercollegiate wrestling coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 293–308. Giges, B., Petitpas, A.J., & Vernacchia, R.A. (2004). Helping coaches met their own needs: Challenges for the sport psychology consultant. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 430–444. Halliwell, W. (1990). Providing sport psychology consulting services in professional hockey. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 369–377. Hays, K.F. (2006). Being fit: The ethics of practice diversification in performance psychology. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 37, 223–232. doi:10.1037/0735- 7028.37.3.223 Horn, T.S. (2002). Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain. In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 309–354). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Horvath, A.O. (2001). The alliance. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 38, 365–372. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.365 Horvath, A.O. (2006). The alliance in context: Accomplishments, challenges, and future directions. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 43, 258–263. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033- 3204.43.3.258 Jowett, S., & Poczwardowski, A. (2007). Understanding the coach-athlete relationship. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 3–14). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Lubker, J.R., Visek, A.J., Geer, J.R., & Watson, J.C. (2008). Characteristics of an effective sport psychology consultant: Perspectives from athletes and consultants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 147–165. McCann, S.C. (2000). Doing sport psychology in the really big show. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 209–277). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Neff, F. (1990). Delivering sport psychology services to a professional sport organization. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 378–385. Norcross, J.C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: Analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 4–17. Paquette, K.J., & Sullivan, P. (2012). Canadian curling coaches’ use of psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 29–42. Partington, J., & Orlick, T. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: Olympic coaches’ view. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 95–102. Petitpas, A.J., Giges, B., & Danish, S.J. (1999). The sport psychologist-athlete relationship: Implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344–357. Poczwardowski, A., & Sherman, C.P. (2011). Revisions to the sport psychology service delivery (SPSD) heuristic: Explorations with experienced consultants. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 511–531. Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C.P., & Henschen, K.P. (1998). A sport psychology service delivery heuristic: Building on theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 191–207. Ravizza, K. (1990). SportPsych consultation issues in professional baseball. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 330–340. Ravizza, K. (1988). Gaining entry with athletic personnel for season long consulting. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 243–254. Price, F.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Into the maelstrom: A five year relationship from college ball to NFL. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 193–206). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Rotella, B., Boyce, B.A., Allyson, B., & Savis, J.C. (1998). Case studies in sport psychology. London: Jones & Barlett Publishers. Sexton, T.L., & Whiston, S.C. (1994). The status of the counseling relationship: An empirical review, theoretical 324 Sharp and Hodge implications, and research directions. The Counseling Psychologist, 22, 6–78. doi:10.1177/0011000094221002 SESNZ. (2012). Code of Ethics. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from http://www.sesnz.org.nz/Membership/. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant’s perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 360–376. doi:10.1080/10413200.2011.583619 Smith, R.E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1, 166–180. doi:10.1080/10413208908406413 Sparkes, A.C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363–386. Stake, R.E. (2000). Case studies. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 435–449). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Tod, D., & Andersen, M.B. (2005). Success in sport psych: Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The sport psych handbook (pp. 305–335). Auckland: Human Kinetics. Thelwell, R.C., Weston, N.J.V., Greenlees, I.A., & Hutchings, N.V. (2008). A qualitative exploration of psychologicalskills use in coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 38–53. Van Raalte, J.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Supervision I: From models to doing. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 153–165). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Vealey, R.S. (1988). Future directions in psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 318–336. Vealey, R.S. (1994). Current status and prominent issues in sport psychology interventions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 495–502. PubMed doi:10.1249/00005768-199404000-00015 Vernacchia, R.A., McGuire, R.T., & Cook, D.L. (1996). What coaches want from sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(Suppl.), 129–130. Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analyses. London: Sage. Weinberg, R.S., & Williams, J.M. (2001). Integrating and implementing a psychological skills training program. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: personal growth to peak performance (4th ed., pp. 347–377). Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub. Co. Winstone, W., & Gervis, M. (2006). Countertransference and the self-aware sport psychologist: Attitudes and patterns of professional practice. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 495–511. Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications. Younggren, J.N., & Gottlieb, M.C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.35.3.255",
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Effective Sport Psychology Consulting Relationships: Two Coach Case Studies. / Sharp, Lee-Ann; Hodge, Ken.

In: The Sport Psychologist, Vol. 27, 12.2013, p. 313-324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effective Sport Psychology Consulting Relationships: Two Coach Case Studies

AU - Sharp, Lee-Ann

AU - Hodge, Ken

N1 - Reference text: References Andersen, M.B. (2000). Beginnings: Intakes and the initiation of relationships. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing Sport Psychology (pp. 3–16). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Andersen, M.B. (2004). Transference and countertransference. In G.S. Kolt & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Psychology in the physical and manual therapies (pp. 71–80). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone. Anderson, A., Miles, A., Robinson, P., & Mahoney, C. (2004). Evaluating the athlete’s perception of the sport psychologist’s effectiveness: What should we be assessing? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 255–277. doi:10.1016/ S1469-0292(03)00005-0 Andersen, M.B., & Williams-Rice, B.T. (1996). Supervision in the education and training of sport psychology service providers. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 278–290. Bowes, I., & Jones, R.L. (2006). Working at the edge of chaos: Understanding coaching as a complex, interpersonal system. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 235–245. Fifer, A., Henschen, K.P., Gould, D., & Ravizza, K. (2008). What works when working with athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 356–377. Fletcher, D., & Scott, M. (2010). Psychological sress in sports coaches: A review of concepts, research and practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 127–137. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410903406208 Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An integrated organisational model. In S.M. Murphy (Ed.), Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147–175). Champaign: Human Kinetics. Gardner, F.L. (2001). Applied sport psychology in professional sports: The team psychologist. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 32(1), 34–39. doi:10.1037/0735- 7028.32.1.34 Gelso, C.J., & Hays, J.A. (1998). The psychotherapy relationship: Theory, research, and practice. London: John Wiley & Sons. Gould, D., Greenleaf, C., Guinan, D., & Chung, Y. (2002). A survey of U.S. Olympic coaches: Variables perceived to have influenced athlete performances and coach effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 229–250. Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (1987). Psychological foundations of coaching: Similarities and differences among intercollegiate wrestling coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 293–308. Giges, B., Petitpas, A.J., & Vernacchia, R.A. (2004). Helping coaches met their own needs: Challenges for the sport psychology consultant. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 430–444. Halliwell, W. (1990). Providing sport psychology consulting services in professional hockey. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 369–377. Hays, K.F. (2006). Being fit: The ethics of practice diversification in performance psychology. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 37, 223–232. doi:10.1037/0735- 7028.37.3.223 Horn, T.S. (2002). Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain. In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 309–354). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Horvath, A.O. (2001). The alliance. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 38, 365–372. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.365 Horvath, A.O. (2006). The alliance in context: Accomplishments, challenges, and future directions. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 43, 258–263. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033- 3204.43.3.258 Jowett, S., & Poczwardowski, A. (2007). Understanding the coach-athlete relationship. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 3–14). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Lubker, J.R., Visek, A.J., Geer, J.R., & Watson, J.C. (2008). Characteristics of an effective sport psychology consultant: Perspectives from athletes and consultants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 147–165. McCann, S.C. (2000). Doing sport psychology in the really big show. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 209–277). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Neff, F. (1990). Delivering sport psychology services to a professional sport organization. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 378–385. Norcross, J.C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: Analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 4–17. Paquette, K.J., & Sullivan, P. (2012). Canadian curling coaches’ use of psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 29–42. Partington, J., & Orlick, T. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: Olympic coaches’ view. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 95–102. Petitpas, A.J., Giges, B., & Danish, S.J. (1999). The sport psychologist-athlete relationship: Implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344–357. Poczwardowski, A., & Sherman, C.P. (2011). Revisions to the sport psychology service delivery (SPSD) heuristic: Explorations with experienced consultants. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 511–531. Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C.P., & Henschen, K.P. (1998). A sport psychology service delivery heuristic: Building on theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 191–207. Ravizza, K. (1990). SportPsych consultation issues in professional baseball. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 330–340. Ravizza, K. (1988). Gaining entry with athletic personnel for season long consulting. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 243–254. Price, F.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Into the maelstrom: A five year relationship from college ball to NFL. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 193–206). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Rotella, B., Boyce, B.A., Allyson, B., & Savis, J.C. (1998). Case studies in sport psychology. London: Jones & Barlett Publishers. Sexton, T.L., & Whiston, S.C. (1994). The status of the counseling relationship: An empirical review, theoretical 324 Sharp and Hodge implications, and research directions. The Counseling Psychologist, 22, 6–78. doi:10.1177/0011000094221002 SESNZ. (2012). Code of Ethics. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from http://www.sesnz.org.nz/Membership/. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant’s perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 360–376. doi:10.1080/10413200.2011.583619 Smith, R.E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1, 166–180. doi:10.1080/10413208908406413 Sparkes, A.C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363–386. Stake, R.E. (2000). Case studies. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 435–449). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Tod, D., & Andersen, M.B. (2005). Success in sport psych: Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The sport psych handbook (pp. 305–335). Auckland: Human Kinetics. Thelwell, R.C., Weston, N.J.V., Greenlees, I.A., & Hutchings, N.V. (2008). A qualitative exploration of psychologicalskills use in coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 38–53. Van Raalte, J.L., & Andersen, M.B. (2000). Supervision I: From models to doing. In M.B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 153–165). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Vealey, R.S. (1988). Future directions in psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 318–336. Vealey, R.S. (1994). Current status and prominent issues in sport psychology interventions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 495–502. PubMed doi:10.1249/00005768-199404000-00015 Vernacchia, R.A., McGuire, R.T., & Cook, D.L. (1996). What coaches want from sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(Suppl.), 129–130. Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analyses. London: Sage. Weinberg, R.S., & Williams, J.M. (2001). Integrating and implementing a psychological skills training program. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: personal growth to peak performance (4th ed., pp. 347–377). Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub. Co. Winstone, W., & Gervis, M. (2006). Countertransference and the self-aware sport psychologist: Attitudes and patterns of professional practice. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 495–511. Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications. Younggren, J.N., & Gottlieb, M.C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.35.3.255

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to investigate the components necessary for the development of an effective applied sport psychology consulting relationship between a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and presented. Following purposeful sampling methods, members of two SPC-Coach consulting relationships (2 SPCs and 2 elite coaches) participated in individual interviews to discuss their perceptions of effective consulting relationships. Inductive \content analysis was conducted to search for common themes both within and across the two case studies (Weber, 1990). Three a coach. To address this purpose, two SPC-Coach consulting relationship case studies will be categories emerged with shared similarities between both case study relationships as important to the development of effective consulting relationships between SPCs and coaches; (a) SPC knowledge; (b) trust; and (c) friendship. In addition, two categories individual to each of the case study consulting relationships emerged; (d) SPC fitting in with team culture; and (e) flexibility.

AB - The purpose of this study was to investigate the components necessary for the development of an effective applied sport psychology consulting relationship between a sport psychology consultant (SPC) and presented. Following purposeful sampling methods, members of two SPC-Coach consulting relationships (2 SPCs and 2 elite coaches) participated in individual interviews to discuss their perceptions of effective consulting relationships. Inductive \content analysis was conducted to search for common themes both within and across the two case studies (Weber, 1990). Three a coach. To address this purpose, two SPC-Coach consulting relationship case studies will be categories emerged with shared similarities between both case study relationships as important to the development of effective consulting relationships between SPCs and coaches; (a) SPC knowledge; (b) trust; and (c) friendship. In addition, two categories individual to each of the case study consulting relationships emerged; (d) SPC fitting in with team culture; and (e) flexibility.

KW - consulting relationships

KW - effectiveness

KW - coaching

KW - knowledge

KW - trust

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VL - 27

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EP - 324

JO - Sport Psychologist

T2 - Sport Psychologist

JF - Sport Psychologist

SN - 0888-4781

ER -