Effect of sidewall on the flame extension characteristics beneath a ceiling induced by carriage fire in a channel

Fei Tang, Peng Hu, Qing He, Jianping Zhang, Jennifer Wen

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27 Citations (Scopus)
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Laboratory tests were firstly conducted in a reduced scale channel to investigate the conditions for flame ejections when the carriage was at the centre of the channel. The ejected flames were recorded by two cameras and the temperature inside the enclosure and on the ceiling were measured. The lower critical heat release rate (HRR) which would result in intermittent flame ejection and upper critical HRR which would lead to continuous external flame were analysed with regards to their variations with the ventilation factor. Correlations for the longitudinal and transverse flame extension lengths and flame extension area beneath the ceiling were proposed. Subsequently further experimental investigations were conducted to study the effect of sidewall constraint on flame extension by changing the position of the carriage along the transverse direction to vary the distance between the sidewall and the carriage opening, which was also systematically varied. With the decrease of the sidewall-to opening distance, the longitudinal flame extension length was found to increase
whereas the transverse flame extension length decreased. The changes are most significant when sidewall-to-opening distance was relatively small. These trends are different from those observed in previous wall-attached fires or corner fires in channels, where the flame extension length beneath the ceiling firstly increased with the decrease of sidewall-source distance, and then decreased slightly when the fire source was attached to the wall. New correlations were proposed to account for the effect of sidewall-to-opening distance for longitudinal and transverse flame extension lengths under the ceiling. They captured well the measurements for all the present cases and some published cases not used in their derivation, demonstrating the potential for fire safety engineering applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-215
Number of pages14
JournalCombustion and Flame
Early online date14 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported jointly by National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 51776060, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. PA2019GDQT0014, and Hefei Overseas Returnees Innovative Projects Funding Scheme for Dr. Fei Tang.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Combustion Institute

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Flame extension
  • Channel fire
  • Sidewall
  • Carriage fire
  • Ejected flame
  • Ceiling jet


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