Effect of shock structure on stabilization and blow-off of hydrogen jet flames

Keiji Takeno, Shohei Yamamoto, Ryo Sakatsume, Shiori Hirakawa, Hiroki Takeda, Volodymyr Shentsov, DV Makarov, Vladimir Molkov

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5 Citations (Scopus)
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Under-expanded hydrogen jet has characteristic shock structure immediately downstream of the nozzle exit. The shock structure depends on the ratio pEX/pA, i.e. the ratio of nozzle exit to ambient pressure, and the distributions of velocity and concentration in an under-expanded hydrogen jet depend on characteristics of the shock structure. Therefore, the shock structure should affect the blow-off behaviour of under-expanded hydrogen jet flame. Since this issue has not been investigated in detail, this study aims to close this knowledge gap. The effect of changes in shock structure on lift-off length and blow-off conditions for non-premixed turbulent hydrogen free jet flame has been experimentally investigated. The shock structure was varied by using three types of nozzles: convergent, straight and divergent nozzles. Inlet diameters of nozzles change from 0.31 to 1.04 mm and outlet diameters from 0.34 to 1.7 mm. The static pressure and the ratio of cross-section area at the nozzle inlet to that at the outlet were varying parameters in this study. Hydrogen was horizontally spouted through a nozzle to atmosphere. The maximum static pressure in a nozzle was 13.2 MPa. The experiments revealed that when the hydrogen jet had sequential shock cell structures, which occurred in the range of pEX/pA smaller than 2.45, a higher mass flow rate of hydrogen was needed for the stabilization of a jet flame than that for pEX/pA larger than 2.45 and that when closed to the ideal expansion (pEX/pA = 1), the mass flow rate for stable flame became maximum. In addition, it was observed that the lift-off length of stable flames followed with sequential shock cell structures were almost the same when the minimum cross-section area of used nozzles was constant. However, when hydrogen jet had a shock structure with single Mach disk, the lift-off lengths and the minimum mass flow rate required for the stable jet flame were decreasing with the decrease of the cross-sectional area ratio of the nozzle exit to inlet.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10145-10154
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number16
Early online date27 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 20 Mar 2020


  • Blow-off
  • Convergent and divergent nozzles
  • Lift-off
  • Non-premixed turbulent flame
  • Shock structure
  • Under-expanded jet


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