Effect of heat transfer through the release pipe on simulations of cryogenic hydrogen jet fires and hazard distances

Donatella Cirrone, DV Makarov, Mike Kuznetsov, Andreas Friedrich, Vladimir Molkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
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Jet flames originated by cryo-compressed ignited hydrogen releases can cause life-threatening conditions in their surroundings. Validated models are needed to accurately predict thermal hazards from a jet fire. Numerical simulations of cryogenic hydrogen flow in the release pipe are performed to assess the effect of heat transfer through the pipe walls on jet parameters. Notional nozzle exit diameter is calculated based on the simulated real nozzle parameters and used in CFD simulations as a boundary condition to model jet fires. The CFD model was previously validated against experiments with vertical cryogenic hydrogen jet fires with release pressures up to 0.5 MPa (abs), release diameter 1.25 mm and temperatures as low as 50 K. This study validates the CFD model in a wider domain of experimental release conditions - horizontal cryogenic jets at exhaust pipe temperature 80 K, pressure up to 2 MPa ab and release diameters up to 4 mm. Simulation results are compared against such experimentally measured parameters as hydrogen mass flow rate, flame length and radiative heat flux at different locations from the jet fire. The CFD model reproduces experiments with reasonable for engineering applications accuracy. Jet fire hazard distances established using three different criteria - temperature, thermal radiation and thermal dose - are compared and discussed based on CFD simulation results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21596-21611
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number50
Early online date28 May 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 12 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research has received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (now Clean Hydrogen Partnership) under grant agreement No.779613 (PRESLHY), No.736648 (NET-Tools), No.826193 (HyTunnel-CS) and No.875089 (HyResponder). This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Hydrogen Europe and Hydrogen Europe research. The authors would like to acknowledge Innovate UK for funding the project “Northern Ireland Green Seas” (ID: 397841).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


  • Cryogenic hydrogen
  • Jet fires
  • Conjugate heat transfer
  • Radiative heat transfer
  • Hazard distances


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