Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality.

Y Ni, Richard Owusu-Apenten, L Zhu, Koushik Seetharaman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of alkali dipping on starch, protein, and color changes in hard pretzel products have never been researched. Experiments were conducted to mimic reactions occurring on the pretzel dough surface. Dough was dipped in water or 1% sodium hydroxide solution at different temperatures between 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C. Protein and starch profile after dipping were analyzed. Color development on pretzel surface following the extraction of pigments from flour was investigated. Whole dough and pretzel samples were also made at pilot plant and the properties were analyzed. Only starch granules on the dough surface were gelatinized following dipping. Amylose-lipid complex dissociated at a lower temperature with alkali treatment but were not dissociated, even at high-temperature dipping in water. Treating the dough at 80 degrees C in alkali solution resulted in the hydrolysis of proteins into smaller peptides that could be not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Dough surface color was different following pigment extraction from flour but not significantly different following baking. The results suggest that the color that developed on pretzel surface was not due to pigments present in the flour but was contributed by the reaction within or between the starch and protein hydrolysis derivatives during baking.
LanguageEnglish
PagesC209-C215
JournalJournal of Food Science
Volume71
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006

Fingerprint

dipping
alkalis
dough
product quality
flour
color
pigments
starch
baking
proteins
hydrolysis
alkali treatment
temperature
trichloroacetic acid
sodium hydroxide
starch granules
amylose
water
chemical derivatives
peptides

Keywords

  • sodium hydroxide
  • alkali
  • dough
  • pretzel
  • pigment
  • baking
  • WHEAT-FLOUR
  • STARCH
  • CORN
  • PROTEINS
  • TORTILLA
  • COLOR
  • BEET

Cite this

Ni, Y., Owusu-Apenten, R., Zhu, L., & Seetharaman, K. (2006). Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality. Journal of Food Science, 71(3), C209-C215.
Ni, Y ; Owusu-Apenten, Richard ; Zhu, L ; Seetharaman, Koushik. / Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality. In: Journal of Food Science. 2006 ; Vol. 71, No. 3. pp. C209-C215.
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Ni, Y, Owusu-Apenten, R, Zhu, L & Seetharaman, K 2006, 'Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality.', Journal of Food Science, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. C209-C215.

Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality. / Ni, Y; Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Zhu, L; Seetharaman, Koushik.

In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 71, No. 3, 04.2006, p. C209-C215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The effects of alkali dipping on starch, protein, and color changes in hard pretzel products have never been researched. Experiments were conducted to mimic reactions occurring on the pretzel dough surface. Dough was dipped in water or 1% sodium hydroxide solution at different temperatures between 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C. Protein and starch profile after dipping were analyzed. Color development on pretzel surface following the extraction of pigments from flour was investigated. Whole dough and pretzel samples were also made at pilot plant and the properties were analyzed. Only starch granules on the dough surface were gelatinized following dipping. Amylose-lipid complex dissociated at a lower temperature with alkali treatment but were not dissociated, even at high-temperature dipping in water. Treating the dough at 80 degrees C in alkali solution resulted in the hydrolysis of proteins into smaller peptides that could be not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Dough surface color was different following pigment extraction from flour but not significantly different following baking. The results suggest that the color that developed on pretzel surface was not due to pigments present in the flour but was contributed by the reaction within or between the starch and protein hydrolysis derivatives during baking.

AB - The effects of alkali dipping on starch, protein, and color changes in hard pretzel products have never been researched. Experiments were conducted to mimic reactions occurring on the pretzel dough surface. Dough was dipped in water or 1% sodium hydroxide solution at different temperatures between 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C. Protein and starch profile after dipping were analyzed. Color development on pretzel surface following the extraction of pigments from flour was investigated. Whole dough and pretzel samples were also made at pilot plant and the properties were analyzed. Only starch granules on the dough surface were gelatinized following dipping. Amylose-lipid complex dissociated at a lower temperature with alkali treatment but were not dissociated, even at high-temperature dipping in water. Treating the dough at 80 degrees C in alkali solution resulted in the hydrolysis of proteins into smaller peptides that could be not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Dough surface color was different following pigment extraction from flour but not significantly different following baking. The results suggest that the color that developed on pretzel surface was not due to pigments present in the flour but was contributed by the reaction within or between the starch and protein hydrolysis derivatives during baking.

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Ni Y, Owusu-Apenten R, Zhu L, Seetharaman K. Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality. Journal of Food Science. 2006 Apr;71(3):C209-C215.