EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011: Education and Conflict

Research output: Book/ReportScholarly edition

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to share some initial ideas about education and conflict that could be developed for the 2011 GMR. The paper has three main parts. The first part identifies some issues around rationale and concepts related to education and conflict. The second part argues that to make a real impact on access to schooling in conflict affected countries we need to take the DAC Principles more seriously by applying context specific analysis and programmatic approaches in those conflict affected countries with the highest numbers of out of school children. This means more differentiation between different types of contemporary conflict and the challenges they pose; deeper analysis of contextual factors that prevent access to education; and an emphasis on effective strategies to address the impacts of conflict on education provision. The third part of the paper places an emphasis on the impacts of education (how it is provided, the values it transmits) on the dynamics of conflict. This section is therefore more concerned about quality of education and, from a conflict perspective, highlights the key role that education plays in identity formation which may make it potentially either an instrument for peaceful development or a means of reinforcing intolerance. The argument is that, from a peace-building and preventative point of view, we need to be aiming for ‘conflict-sensitive’ education systems.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010

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monitoring
education
identity formation
schoolchild
education system
tolerance
peace
Values

Keywords

  • education for all
  • conflict
  • global monitoring
  • unesco

Cite this

@book{a6130481b5914462955014613b05c1bf,
title = "EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011: Education and Conflict",
abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to share some initial ideas about education and conflict that could be developed for the 2011 GMR. The paper has three main parts. The first part identifies some issues around rationale and concepts related to education and conflict. The second part argues that to make a real impact on access to schooling in conflict affected countries we need to take the DAC Principles more seriously by applying context specific analysis and programmatic approaches in those conflict affected countries with the highest numbers of out of school children. This means more differentiation between different types of contemporary conflict and the challenges they pose; deeper analysis of contextual factors that prevent access to education; and an emphasis on effective strategies to address the impacts of conflict on education provision. The third part of the paper places an emphasis on the impacts of education (how it is provided, the values it transmits) on the dynamics of conflict. This section is therefore more concerned about quality of education and, from a conflict perspective, highlights the key role that education plays in identity formation which may make it potentially either an instrument for peaceful development or a means of reinforcing intolerance. The argument is that, from a peace-building and preventative point of view, we need to be aiming for ‘conflict-sensitive’ education systems.",
keywords = "education for all, conflict, global monitoring, unesco",
author = "Alan Smith",
note = "Reference text: Aguilar, P., & Retamal G. (1998). Rapid educational response in complex emergencies: A discussion document. Geneva, Switzerland: International Bureau of Education. Barakat, B., Karpinska, Z., & Paulson, J. (2008). INEE Desk study: Education and fragility. Oxford, UK: Conflict and Education Research Group (CERG). Berry, C. (2007). Education aid in fragile states: Delivering it effectively. London: SPIRU. Bird, L. (2007). Learning about war and peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(3), 176-190. Buckland, P. (2005). Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Burde, D. (2004). Weak state, strong community? Promoting community participation in postconflict countries. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 6(2), 73-87. Burde, D. (2005). Education in crisis situations: Mapping the field. Washington, D.C.: USAID. Bush, K., & Salterelli, D. (Eds.). (2000). The two faces of education in ethnic conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Chauvet, L., & Collier, P. (2004). Development effectiveness in fragile states: Spillovers and turnarounds. Oxford, UK: Centre for the Study of African Economies. http://www.jica.go.jp/cdstudy/library/pdf/20071101_09.pdf Coleman, J. (1988) Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology, 94, Supplement, 95-120 Colenso, P. (2005). Achieving the education Millennium Development Goals in fragile states – what is the role of aid? Brighton, UK: University of Sussex. Coletta, N.J. & Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Collier, P. (2003). Breaking the conflict trap: Civil war and development policy. Washington DC: Oxford University Press/World Bank. Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2002). Aid, policy and peace: Reducing the risks of civil conflict. Defence and Peace Economics, 13 (6), 435-450. Cote, S. and Healy, T. (2001) The well being of nations. The role of human and social capital, Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Davies, L. (2004). Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. New York, NY: Routledge. Department for International Development. (2005). Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states. www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/fragilestatespaper.pdf Department for International Development. (2002). Conducting conflict assessments: Guidance notes http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/conflictassessmentguidance.pdf Duffield, M. (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars, London, Zed. EFA FTI Secretariat. (January 2005). Guidelines for appraisal of the primary education component of an education sector plan. www1.worldbank.org/education/efafti/documents/assessmentguidelines.pdf Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2007). Capacity development for Education for All: Putting policy into practice http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_Bonn_Forum_on_CD_for_EFA_report.pdf 16 Green, A., Preston, J. and Sabates, R. (2003) ‘Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: a distributional approach’, Compare, 33 (4): 451-68 Green, A., Preston, J. and Janmaat, J.G. (2006) Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: A Comparative Analysis, Palgrave MacMillan. INEE (2008) Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_INEE_Guidance_Notes_on_Teacher_CompensationPiloting.pdf International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). (2006). Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. International Save the Children Alliance. (2007). Last in line, last in school: How donors are failing children in conflict-affected fragile states. Kirk, J. (2006). Education and fragile states: Towards an analysis and programming tool. International Rescue Committee. Leader, N., & Colenso, P. (March, 2005). Aid instruments in fragile states. www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/oda/2005/03fragile.pdf McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (1993) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation, London, Routledge. Meagher, P. (2007). Service delivery in fragile states: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. IRIS Center/University of Maryland. OECD/DAC Discussion Paper. Midttun, E. (2000). Education in emergencies and transition phases: Still a right and more of a need. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council. Mosselson, J., Wheaton, W. & Frisoli, P.S. (2009). Education and Fragility: A Synthesis of the Literature, Journal of Education for International Development 4:1 April 2009 Nicolai, S., &Triplehorn, C. (March 2003). The role of education in protecting children in conflict. London: Overseas Development Institute. O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under Attack: A global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials and educational institutions. http://www.unesco.org/education/attack/educationunderattack.pdf Obura, A. (2003). Never Again: Educational reconstruction in Rwanda. Paris: UNESCO, IIEP. Obura, A. (2008). Staying power: Struggling to reconstruct education in Burundi since 1993. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning-UNESCO. OECD (2001). DAC Guidelines – Helping Prevent Violent Conflict. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_The_DAC_Guidelineshelping_prevent_violent_conflict.pdf OECD Fragile States Group. (2007). Policy brief: State building in fragile states. http://www.ineesite.org/page.asp?pid=1428 OECD-DAC (2005).Mainstreaming conflict prevention - reconciliation. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_OECDMainstreaming_Conflict_Prevention.pdf OECD-DAC. (2007). Principles for good international engagement in fragile states & situations.http://www.oecd.org/document/12/0,3343,en_2649_33693550_42113676_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD-DAC. (2008). Service delivery in fragile situations: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/54/40886707.pdf 17 Office for National Statistics (2001) Social Capital: A review of the literature, Social Analysis and Reporting Division, United Kingdom, Office for National Statistics, October 2001. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/socialcapital/downloads/soccaplitreview.pdf Paulson, J., & Rappleye, J. (2007). Bridging the theory-policy gap? A review of three recent publications in ‘education and conflict.’ International Journal of Educational Development, 27(4), 340-347. Pigozzi, M. J. (1999). Education in emergencies and reconstruction: A developmental approach. New York: UNICEF. Rose, P., & Greeley, M. (May 2006). Education in fragile states: Capturing lessons and Identifying Good Practice. DAC Fragile States Group, Service Delivery Workstream, Sub-Team for Education Services. Save The Children (2007). The 'Education and Fragility Barometer’: An early warning tool to aid conflict prevention. London: Save The Children UK. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The Complementary Roles of Human and Social Capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 18-24. Sinclair, M. (2002). Planning education in and after emergencies. Paris: UNESCO. Slaymaker, T., Christiansen, K., & Hemming, I. (2005). Community-based approaches and service delivery: Issues and options in difficult environments and partnerships. London: Overseas Development Institute. Smith, A., & Vaux, T. (2003). Education, conflict, and international development. London: Department of International Development. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis prevention: Tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 32(3), 245-262. Tawil, S. and Harley, A. (eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion, UNESCO-IBE, Geneva. Tebbe, K. (2007). ‘Peacebuilding Methods for the Post-Conflict Education System’, M.A. in International Peace and Conflict Resolution, American University. https://new.american.edu/sis/ipcr/upload/KTebbeSRPwDistinction2007S.pdf Triplehorn, C. (2001). Education: Care and protection of children in emergencies - A field guide. Westport, CT: Save the Children. UNESCO (1999) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision, UNESCO, Paris. UNICEF (2009) Machel Study 10-year Strategic Review. Children and Conflict in a Changing World. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Machel_Study_10_Year_Strategic_Review_EN_030909.pdf United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (2005). Fragile states strategy. www.usaid.gov/policy/2005_fragile_states_strategy.pdf United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (2006). Education and fragility: An assessment tool. Washington DC: USAID. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_89_education_and_fragility_assessmenttool.pdf Vallings, C., & Torrres M.M. (2005). Drivers of fragility: What makes states fragile? London, UK: DFID, Pride Working Paper No. 7. Vaux, T., Smith, A., & Subba, S. (2006). Education for All – Nepal: Review from a conflict perspective. International Alert. Wedge, J. (2008).Where peace begins: Education’s role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. London: Save the Children UK. Woolcock, M. (2001) ‘The significance of social capital for understanding economic and social outcomes, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 11-17. World Bank (1998) The World Bank Experience with Post Conflict Reconstruction, Washington, D.C. World Bank (2004) The Role of the World Bank in Conflict and Development, Washington, D.C.",
year = "2010",
month = "1",
language = "English",

}

EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011: Education and Conflict. / Smith, Alan.

2010. 20 p.

Research output: Book/ReportScholarly edition

TY - BOOK

T1 - EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011: Education and Conflict

AU - Smith, Alan

N1 - Reference text: Aguilar, P., & Retamal G. (1998). Rapid educational response in complex emergencies: A discussion document. Geneva, Switzerland: International Bureau of Education. Barakat, B., Karpinska, Z., & Paulson, J. (2008). INEE Desk study: Education and fragility. Oxford, UK: Conflict and Education Research Group (CERG). Berry, C. (2007). Education aid in fragile states: Delivering it effectively. London: SPIRU. Bird, L. (2007). Learning about war and peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(3), 176-190. Buckland, P. (2005). Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Burde, D. (2004). Weak state, strong community? Promoting community participation in postconflict countries. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 6(2), 73-87. Burde, D. (2005). Education in crisis situations: Mapping the field. Washington, D.C.: USAID. Bush, K., & Salterelli, D. (Eds.). (2000). The two faces of education in ethnic conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Chauvet, L., & Collier, P. (2004). Development effectiveness in fragile states: Spillovers and turnarounds. Oxford, UK: Centre for the Study of African Economies. http://www.jica.go.jp/cdstudy/library/pdf/20071101_09.pdf Coleman, J. (1988) Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology, 94, Supplement, 95-120 Colenso, P. (2005). Achieving the education Millennium Development Goals in fragile states – what is the role of aid? Brighton, UK: University of Sussex. Coletta, N.J. & Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Collier, P. (2003). Breaking the conflict trap: Civil war and development policy. Washington DC: Oxford University Press/World Bank. Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2002). Aid, policy and peace: Reducing the risks of civil conflict. Defence and Peace Economics, 13 (6), 435-450. Cote, S. and Healy, T. (2001) The well being of nations. The role of human and social capital, Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Davies, L. (2004). Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. New York, NY: Routledge. Department for International Development. (2005). Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states. www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/fragilestatespaper.pdf Department for International Development. (2002). Conducting conflict assessments: Guidance notes http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/conflictassessmentguidance.pdf Duffield, M. (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars, London, Zed. EFA FTI Secretariat. (January 2005). Guidelines for appraisal of the primary education component of an education sector plan. www1.worldbank.org/education/efafti/documents/assessmentguidelines.pdf Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2007). Capacity development for Education for All: Putting policy into practice http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_Bonn_Forum_on_CD_for_EFA_report.pdf 16 Green, A., Preston, J. and Sabates, R. (2003) ‘Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: a distributional approach’, Compare, 33 (4): 451-68 Green, A., Preston, J. and Janmaat, J.G. (2006) Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: A Comparative Analysis, Palgrave MacMillan. INEE (2008) Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_INEE_Guidance_Notes_on_Teacher_CompensationPiloting.pdf International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). (2006). Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. International Save the Children Alliance. (2007). Last in line, last in school: How donors are failing children in conflict-affected fragile states. Kirk, J. (2006). Education and fragile states: Towards an analysis and programming tool. International Rescue Committee. Leader, N., & Colenso, P. (March, 2005). Aid instruments in fragile states. www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/oda/2005/03fragile.pdf McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (1993) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation, London, Routledge. Meagher, P. (2007). Service delivery in fragile states: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. IRIS Center/University of Maryland. OECD/DAC Discussion Paper. Midttun, E. (2000). Education in emergencies and transition phases: Still a right and more of a need. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council. Mosselson, J., Wheaton, W. & Frisoli, P.S. (2009). Education and Fragility: A Synthesis of the Literature, Journal of Education for International Development 4:1 April 2009 Nicolai, S., &Triplehorn, C. (March 2003). The role of education in protecting children in conflict. London: Overseas Development Institute. O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under Attack: A global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials and educational institutions. http://www.unesco.org/education/attack/educationunderattack.pdf Obura, A. (2003). Never Again: Educational reconstruction in Rwanda. Paris: UNESCO, IIEP. Obura, A. (2008). Staying power: Struggling to reconstruct education in Burundi since 1993. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning-UNESCO. OECD (2001). DAC Guidelines – Helping Prevent Violent Conflict. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_The_DAC_Guidelineshelping_prevent_violent_conflict.pdf OECD Fragile States Group. (2007). Policy brief: State building in fragile states. http://www.ineesite.org/page.asp?pid=1428 OECD-DAC (2005).Mainstreaming conflict prevention - reconciliation. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_OECDMainstreaming_Conflict_Prevention.pdf OECD-DAC. (2007). Principles for good international engagement in fragile states & situations.http://www.oecd.org/document/12/0,3343,en_2649_33693550_42113676_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD-DAC. (2008). Service delivery in fragile situations: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/54/40886707.pdf 17 Office for National Statistics (2001) Social Capital: A review of the literature, Social Analysis and Reporting Division, United Kingdom, Office for National Statistics, October 2001. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/socialcapital/downloads/soccaplitreview.pdf Paulson, J., & Rappleye, J. (2007). Bridging the theory-policy gap? A review of three recent publications in ‘education and conflict.’ International Journal of Educational Development, 27(4), 340-347. Pigozzi, M. J. (1999). Education in emergencies and reconstruction: A developmental approach. New York: UNICEF. Rose, P., & Greeley, M. (May 2006). Education in fragile states: Capturing lessons and Identifying Good Practice. DAC Fragile States Group, Service Delivery Workstream, Sub-Team for Education Services. Save The Children (2007). The 'Education and Fragility Barometer’: An early warning tool to aid conflict prevention. London: Save The Children UK. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The Complementary Roles of Human and Social Capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 18-24. Sinclair, M. (2002). Planning education in and after emergencies. Paris: UNESCO. Slaymaker, T., Christiansen, K., & Hemming, I. (2005). Community-based approaches and service delivery: Issues and options in difficult environments and partnerships. London: Overseas Development Institute. Smith, A., & Vaux, T. (2003). Education, conflict, and international development. London: Department of International Development. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis prevention: Tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 32(3), 245-262. Tawil, S. and Harley, A. (eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion, UNESCO-IBE, Geneva. Tebbe, K. (2007). ‘Peacebuilding Methods for the Post-Conflict Education System’, M.A. in International Peace and Conflict Resolution, American University. https://new.american.edu/sis/ipcr/upload/KTebbeSRPwDistinction2007S.pdf Triplehorn, C. (2001). Education: Care and protection of children in emergencies - A field guide. Westport, CT: Save the Children. UNESCO (1999) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision, UNESCO, Paris. UNICEF (2009) Machel Study 10-year Strategic Review. Children and Conflict in a Changing World. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Machel_Study_10_Year_Strategic_Review_EN_030909.pdf United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (2005). Fragile states strategy. www.usaid.gov/policy/2005_fragile_states_strategy.pdf United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (2006). Education and fragility: An assessment tool. Washington DC: USAID. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_89_education_and_fragility_assessmenttool.pdf Vallings, C., & Torrres M.M. (2005). Drivers of fragility: What makes states fragile? London, UK: DFID, Pride Working Paper No. 7. Vaux, T., Smith, A., & Subba, S. (2006). Education for All – Nepal: Review from a conflict perspective. International Alert. Wedge, J. (2008).Where peace begins: Education’s role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. London: Save the Children UK. Woolcock, M. (2001) ‘The significance of social capital for understanding economic and social outcomes, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 11-17. World Bank (1998) The World Bank Experience with Post Conflict Reconstruction, Washington, D.C. World Bank (2004) The Role of the World Bank in Conflict and Development, Washington, D.C.

PY - 2010/1

Y1 - 2010/1

N2 - The purpose of this paper is to share some initial ideas about education and conflict that could be developed for the 2011 GMR. The paper has three main parts. The first part identifies some issues around rationale and concepts related to education and conflict. The second part argues that to make a real impact on access to schooling in conflict affected countries we need to take the DAC Principles more seriously by applying context specific analysis and programmatic approaches in those conflict affected countries with the highest numbers of out of school children. This means more differentiation between different types of contemporary conflict and the challenges they pose; deeper analysis of contextual factors that prevent access to education; and an emphasis on effective strategies to address the impacts of conflict on education provision. The third part of the paper places an emphasis on the impacts of education (how it is provided, the values it transmits) on the dynamics of conflict. This section is therefore more concerned about quality of education and, from a conflict perspective, highlights the key role that education plays in identity formation which may make it potentially either an instrument for peaceful development or a means of reinforcing intolerance. The argument is that, from a peace-building and preventative point of view, we need to be aiming for ‘conflict-sensitive’ education systems.

AB - The purpose of this paper is to share some initial ideas about education and conflict that could be developed for the 2011 GMR. The paper has three main parts. The first part identifies some issues around rationale and concepts related to education and conflict. The second part argues that to make a real impact on access to schooling in conflict affected countries we need to take the DAC Principles more seriously by applying context specific analysis and programmatic approaches in those conflict affected countries with the highest numbers of out of school children. This means more differentiation between different types of contemporary conflict and the challenges they pose; deeper analysis of contextual factors that prevent access to education; and an emphasis on effective strategies to address the impacts of conflict on education provision. The third part of the paper places an emphasis on the impacts of education (how it is provided, the values it transmits) on the dynamics of conflict. This section is therefore more concerned about quality of education and, from a conflict perspective, highlights the key role that education plays in identity formation which may make it potentially either an instrument for peaceful development or a means of reinforcing intolerance. The argument is that, from a peace-building and preventative point of view, we need to be aiming for ‘conflict-sensitive’ education systems.

KW - education for all

KW - conflict

KW - global monitoring

KW - unesco

M3 - Scholarly edition

BT - EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011: Education and Conflict

ER -