Education in the Twent-First Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to map out an emerging, and increasingly important field of studyconcerning the relationship between education and conflict. The field has two main parameters. The first involves the variety of contexts within which education systems are required to operate. Distinctions are drawn between education that is provided within relatively peaceful and stable environments; during times of violent conflict; as part of reconstruction following conflict or political transition; and as part of longer term peace and reconciliation processes. Educational priorities and concerns may be quite different depending on each of these circumstances. The second parameter concerns different levels of action within an education system. These include the political and policy environment, administrative and structural features and various aspects of educational practice. The paper argues that actions through various ‘entry points’ at each of theselevels carry the potential to exacerbate or ameliorate conflict and suggests that a systemic analysis of investments in education systems from a conflict perspective should be a routine part of educational planning.
LanguageEnglish
Pages373-391
JournalCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
Volume35
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Fingerprint

reconciliation
reconstruction
education system
education
educational planning
investment in education
educational practice
peace

Keywords

  • Education For All
  • Conflict
  • International development
  • Reconstruction
  • Reconciliation
  • Politics of Education
  • Governance

Cite this

@article{d9da35c93a8e4aa4bc300ff8ea74039d,
title = "Education in the Twent-First Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation",
abstract = "This paper is an attempt to map out an emerging, and increasingly important field of studyconcerning the relationship between education and conflict. The field has two main parameters. The first involves the variety of contexts within which education systems are required to operate. Distinctions are drawn between education that is provided within relatively peaceful and stable environments; during times of violent conflict; as part of reconstruction following conflict or political transition; and as part of longer term peace and reconciliation processes. Educational priorities and concerns may be quite different depending on each of these circumstances. The second parameter concerns different levels of action within an education system. These include the political and policy environment, administrative and structural features and various aspects of educational practice. The paper argues that actions through various ‘entry points’ at each of theselevels carry the potential to exacerbate or ameliorate conflict and suggests that a systemic analysis of investments in education systems from a conflict perspective should be a routine part of educational planning.",
keywords = "Education For All, Conflict, International development, Reconstruction, Reconciliation, Politics of Education, Governance",
author = "Alan Smith",
note = "Journal of the British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Reference text: Adwan, S. & Firer, R. (1999) The Narrative of the 1967 war in the Israeli and Palestinian History and Civics Textbooks and Curricula Statement (Braunschwieg, Eckert Institute). Allen, T. & Thomas, A. (2000) (Eds) Poverty and Development into the 21st Century (Oxford, Oxford University Press). Ballentine, K. & Sherman, J. (2003) (Eds) The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance (Boulder, CO, Lynne Reinner). Bardhan, P. (1997) ‘Method in the madness? A political economy analysis of the ethnic conflicts in less developed countries’, World development, 25(9). Bar-Gal, Y. (1993) Boundaries as a topic in geographic education: the case of Israel, Political Geography, 12(5), 421–435, Available online at: http://geo.haifa.ac.il/,bargal/border.html (accessed 10 August 2005). Barton, K. C. & McCully, A. W. (2005) History, Identity and the School History Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ Ideas and Perspectives, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(1), 85–116. Bird, L. (2003) Surviving School. Education for Refugee Children from Rwanda 1994–1996 (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Buckland, P. (2004) Reshaping the Future: Education and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (Washington, DC, World Bank). Bush, K. D. & Saltarelli, D. (2000) The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict (Florence, United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre). Colenso, P. (2004) Education and social cohesion—developing a framework for education sector reform in Sri Lanka, Paper at Annual Conference of British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE). Collier, P. & Hoeffler, A. (2001) Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Available online at: http:// econ.worldbank.org/files/12205_greedgrievance_23oct.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Crisp, J., Talbot, C. & Cipollone, D. B. (Eds) (2001) Learning for A Future:Refugee Education in Developing Countries (Geneva, UNHCR). Davies, L. (2004) Conflict and Education: Complexity and Chaos (London, Routledge). Daye, R. (2004) Political forgiveness: Lessons from South Africa (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books). de Klerk (2002) Mother-tongue education in South Africa: the weight of history, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 154, 29–46. Delors, J. et al. (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (Paris, UNESCO). DFID (2005) Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states (London, DFID Policy Paper). Available online at: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/fragilestates-paper.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Duffield, M. (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars (London, Zed Books). EFA Global Monitoring Report (2002) Education for All. Is The World On Track? (Paris, UNESCO). EFA Global Monitoring Report (2003) Gender and Education for All. The Leap to Equality (Paris, UNESCO), 84–86. EFA Global Monitoring Report (2005) Education for All. The Quality Imperative (Paris, UNESCO). Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization (London, Sage). Goodhand, J. (2001) Violent Conflict, Poverty and Chronic Poverty. Working Paper 6 (Manchester, IDPM/Chronic Poverty Research Centre). Available online at: http:// www.chronicpoverty.org/resources/cp06.htm (accessed 10 August 2005). Gutmann, A. (Ed.) (1994) Multiculturalism (Princeton, Princeton University Press). Hamber, B. & van der Merwe, H. (1998) What is this thing called reconciliation? Reconciliation in Review, 1(1), 3–6. Harber, C. (2004) Schooling as Violence (London & New York, Routledge Falmer). Hopken, W. (2003) ‘Textbooks and Conflicts. Experiences from the Work of the Georg- Eckert-Institute for International Textbook Research’ (Washington, DC, World Bank Symposium). Huntington, S. (2000) The Clash of Civilizations? in: F. J. Lechner & J. Boli (Eds) The Globalization Reader (London, Blackwell Publishers), 25–33. id21 (2004) Life skills, peace education and aids prevention. Available online at: http://www.id21.org/insights/insights-ed04/insights-issed04-art03.html (accessed 10 August 2005). INEE (2004) Life skills and supplementary education programmes. Available online at: http://www.ineesite.org/standards/default.asp (accessed 10 August 2005). INEE (2005) Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction. Available online at: http://www.ineesite.org/standards/default.asp (accessed 10 August 2005). Isaac, A. (2001) Education, Conflict and Peacebuilding, Draft Working Paper (Ottawa, CIDA Peacebuilding Unit). Kirk, J. (2004) Promoting a gender-just peace: The roles of women teachers in peacebuilding and reconstruction, Gender and Development, Nov 2004, 50–59. Leach, F. (2003) Learning to be violent: the role of the school in developing adolescent gendered behaviour, Compare, 33(3), 385–400. Lederach, J. P. (1997) Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies (Washington, DC, United States Institute for Peace). Lewin, K. M. (2001) Knowledge Matters for Development, Professorial Lecture (University of Sussex, Centre for International Education). Available online at: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/ education/documents/knowledgematters.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Machel, G. (1996) UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children (New York, UNICEF). Available online at: http://www.unicef.org/graca (accessed 10 August 2005). Machel, G. (2000) The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. A critical review of progress made and obstacles encountered in increasing protection for war-affected children, www. waraffectedchildren.com/machel-e.asp Nicolai, S. (2004) Learning Independence. Education in Emergency and Transition in Timor-Leste since 1999 (Paris, UNESCO-International Institute for Education Planning). Obura, A. (2003) Never Again. Educational Reconstruction in Rwanda (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Parker, W. C., Ninomiya, A. & Cogan, J. (1999) Educating World Citizens: Toward Multinational Curriculum Development, American Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 117–145. Philips, D. et al. (1998) Education for Reconstruction—The regeneration of educational capacity following national upheaval (Oxford, Studies in Comparative Education, Symposium Books). Retamal, G. & Aedo-Richmond, R. (1998) (Eds) Education as a Humanitarian Response (London, Cassell). Rogers, P. (2000) International Security in the Early Twenty-First Century Briefing Paper No. 76 (London, ISIS). Seitz, K. (2004) Education and Conflict. The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises. Consequences for development cooperation (Stuttgart, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)). Sinclair, M. (2002) Planning Education In and After Emergencies (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Smith, A. & Vaux, T. (2003) Education, Conflict and International Development (London, DFID). Sommers, M. (2002) Children, Education and War: Reaching Education For All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict (Washington, DC, World Bank). Sommers, M. (2004) Co-ordinating Education During Emergencies and Reconstruction (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Sommers, M. & Buckland, P. (2004) Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Spink, J. (2005) Education and politics in Afghanistan: the importance of an education system in peacebuilding and reconstruction, Journal of Peace Education, 2(2), 195–207. Stern, P. & Druckman, D. (Eds) (2000) International Conflict Resolution After The Cold War (Washington, DC, National Academy Press). Stewart, F. (2001) Horizontal inequalities as a source of conflict, in: F. Hampson & D. Malone (Eds) From Reaction to Prevention (London, Lynne Rienner). Tawil, S. (2000) International humanitarian law and basic education, International Review of the Red Cross, 82(839), 581–600. Tawil, S. & Harley, A. (Eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion (Geneva, International Bureau for Education, UNESCO). Thomas, A. (2001) The Future of Development Management, Development Studies Association, Annual Conference, Manchester. Available online at: http://www.devstud. org.uk/publications/papers/conf01/conf01thomas.doc (accessed 10 August 2005). Tomasevski, K. (2004) Manual on Rights-based Education: Global Human Rights Requirements Made Simple (Bangkok, UNESCO). Tomlinson, K. & Benefield, P. (2005) Education and Conflict: Research and Research Possibilities (Slough, National Foundation for Educational Research). UK Government (2000) Eliminating World Poverty: Making Globalisation Work for the Poor (London, HMSO). UNESCO (1999a) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision (Paris, UNESCO). UNESCO (1999b) Disarming History: International Conference on combating Stereotypes and Prejudice in History Textbooks of South-East Europe, Visby, Gotland (Sweden), 23–25 September 1999. UNESCO (2003) Education in a Multilingual World Position Paper (Paris, UNESCO). UNESCO (2004) Capacity-building of teacher training institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa (Paris, UNESCO). Online at: www.dakar.unesco.org/pdf/030918_report_ren_capa_ens.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). UNICEF (2000) State of the World’s Children (New York, UNICEF). Available online at: http:// www.unicef.org/sowc00 (accessed 10 August 2005). See also: http://www.unicef.org/ children_conflict/past.htm (accessed 10 August 2005). UNICEF (2005) Life Skills-based Education programme. Available online at: http://www.unicef.org/lifeskills (accessed 10 August 2005). USAID (2005) Fragile States Strategy (Washington, DC, USAID). Available online at: http://www.usaid.gov/policy/2005_fragile_states_strategy.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Wickrema, A. & Colenso, P. (2003) Respect for Diversity in Educational Publication. The Sri Lankan Experience (Washington, DC, World Bank Symposium). Woods Masalski, K. (2001) Examining the Japanese History Textbook Controversies (Bloomington, Indiana University, National Clearinghouse for United States-Japan). Available online at: http://www.indiana.edu/,japan/Digests/textbook.html (accessed 10 August 2005). Woolcock, M. (2004) Getting the Social Relations Right: Toward an Integrated Theology and Theory of Development, in: P. Heslam (Ed.) Globalisation and the Good (Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans Publishing), 41–51. World Bank (1998) The World Bank Experience with Post Conflict Reconstruction (Washington, DC, World Bank). World Bank (2004) The Role of the World Bank in Conflict and Development (Washington, DC, World Bank).",
year = "2005",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "373--391",
journal = "Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education",
issn = "0305-7925",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Education in the Twent-First Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation

AU - Smith, Alan

N1 - Journal of the British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Reference text: Adwan, S. & Firer, R. (1999) The Narrative of the 1967 war in the Israeli and Palestinian History and Civics Textbooks and Curricula Statement (Braunschwieg, Eckert Institute). Allen, T. & Thomas, A. (2000) (Eds) Poverty and Development into the 21st Century (Oxford, Oxford University Press). Ballentine, K. & Sherman, J. (2003) (Eds) The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance (Boulder, CO, Lynne Reinner). Bardhan, P. (1997) ‘Method in the madness? A political economy analysis of the ethnic conflicts in less developed countries’, World development, 25(9). Bar-Gal, Y. (1993) Boundaries as a topic in geographic education: the case of Israel, Political Geography, 12(5), 421–435, Available online at: http://geo.haifa.ac.il/,bargal/border.html (accessed 10 August 2005). Barton, K. C. & McCully, A. W. (2005) History, Identity and the School History Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ Ideas and Perspectives, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(1), 85–116. Bird, L. (2003) Surviving School. Education for Refugee Children from Rwanda 1994–1996 (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Buckland, P. (2004) Reshaping the Future: Education and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (Washington, DC, World Bank). Bush, K. D. & Saltarelli, D. (2000) The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict (Florence, United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre). Colenso, P. (2004) Education and social cohesion—developing a framework for education sector reform in Sri Lanka, Paper at Annual Conference of British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE). Collier, P. & Hoeffler, A. (2001) Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Available online at: http:// econ.worldbank.org/files/12205_greedgrievance_23oct.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Crisp, J., Talbot, C. & Cipollone, D. B. (Eds) (2001) Learning for A Future:Refugee Education in Developing Countries (Geneva, UNHCR). Davies, L. (2004) Conflict and Education: Complexity and Chaos (London, Routledge). Daye, R. (2004) Political forgiveness: Lessons from South Africa (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books). de Klerk (2002) Mother-tongue education in South Africa: the weight of history, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 154, 29–46. Delors, J. et al. (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (Paris, UNESCO). DFID (2005) Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states (London, DFID Policy Paper). Available online at: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/fragilestates-paper.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Duffield, M. (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars (London, Zed Books). EFA Global Monitoring Report (2002) Education for All. Is The World On Track? (Paris, UNESCO). EFA Global Monitoring Report (2003) Gender and Education for All. The Leap to Equality (Paris, UNESCO), 84–86. EFA Global Monitoring Report (2005) Education for All. The Quality Imperative (Paris, UNESCO). Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization (London, Sage). Goodhand, J. (2001) Violent Conflict, Poverty and Chronic Poverty. Working Paper 6 (Manchester, IDPM/Chronic Poverty Research Centre). Available online at: http:// www.chronicpoverty.org/resources/cp06.htm (accessed 10 August 2005). Gutmann, A. (Ed.) (1994) Multiculturalism (Princeton, Princeton University Press). Hamber, B. & van der Merwe, H. (1998) What is this thing called reconciliation? Reconciliation in Review, 1(1), 3–6. Harber, C. (2004) Schooling as Violence (London & New York, Routledge Falmer). Hopken, W. (2003) ‘Textbooks and Conflicts. Experiences from the Work of the Georg- Eckert-Institute for International Textbook Research’ (Washington, DC, World Bank Symposium). Huntington, S. (2000) The Clash of Civilizations? in: F. J. Lechner & J. Boli (Eds) The Globalization Reader (London, Blackwell Publishers), 25–33. id21 (2004) Life skills, peace education and aids prevention. Available online at: http://www.id21.org/insights/insights-ed04/insights-issed04-art03.html (accessed 10 August 2005). INEE (2004) Life skills and supplementary education programmes. Available online at: http://www.ineesite.org/standards/default.asp (accessed 10 August 2005). INEE (2005) Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction. Available online at: http://www.ineesite.org/standards/default.asp (accessed 10 August 2005). Isaac, A. (2001) Education, Conflict and Peacebuilding, Draft Working Paper (Ottawa, CIDA Peacebuilding Unit). Kirk, J. (2004) Promoting a gender-just peace: The roles of women teachers in peacebuilding and reconstruction, Gender and Development, Nov 2004, 50–59. Leach, F. (2003) Learning to be violent: the role of the school in developing adolescent gendered behaviour, Compare, 33(3), 385–400. Lederach, J. P. (1997) Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies (Washington, DC, United States Institute for Peace). Lewin, K. M. (2001) Knowledge Matters for Development, Professorial Lecture (University of Sussex, Centre for International Education). Available online at: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/ education/documents/knowledgematters.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Machel, G. (1996) UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children (New York, UNICEF). Available online at: http://www.unicef.org/graca (accessed 10 August 2005). Machel, G. (2000) The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. A critical review of progress made and obstacles encountered in increasing protection for war-affected children, www. waraffectedchildren.com/machel-e.asp Nicolai, S. (2004) Learning Independence. Education in Emergency and Transition in Timor-Leste since 1999 (Paris, UNESCO-International Institute for Education Planning). Obura, A. (2003) Never Again. Educational Reconstruction in Rwanda (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Parker, W. C., Ninomiya, A. & Cogan, J. (1999) Educating World Citizens: Toward Multinational Curriculum Development, American Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 117–145. Philips, D. et al. (1998) Education for Reconstruction—The regeneration of educational capacity following national upheaval (Oxford, Studies in Comparative Education, Symposium Books). Retamal, G. & Aedo-Richmond, R. (1998) (Eds) Education as a Humanitarian Response (London, Cassell). Rogers, P. (2000) International Security in the Early Twenty-First Century Briefing Paper No. 76 (London, ISIS). Seitz, K. (2004) Education and Conflict. The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises. Consequences for development cooperation (Stuttgart, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)). Sinclair, M. (2002) Planning Education In and After Emergencies (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Smith, A. & Vaux, T. (2003) Education, Conflict and International Development (London, DFID). Sommers, M. (2002) Children, Education and War: Reaching Education For All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict (Washington, DC, World Bank). Sommers, M. (2004) Co-ordinating Education During Emergencies and Reconstruction (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Sommers, M. & Buckland, P. (2004) Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo (Paris, International Institute for Education Planning, UNESCO). Spink, J. (2005) Education and politics in Afghanistan: the importance of an education system in peacebuilding and reconstruction, Journal of Peace Education, 2(2), 195–207. Stern, P. & Druckman, D. (Eds) (2000) International Conflict Resolution After The Cold War (Washington, DC, National Academy Press). Stewart, F. (2001) Horizontal inequalities as a source of conflict, in: F. Hampson & D. Malone (Eds) From Reaction to Prevention (London, Lynne Rienner). Tawil, S. (2000) International humanitarian law and basic education, International Review of the Red Cross, 82(839), 581–600. Tawil, S. & Harley, A. (Eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion (Geneva, International Bureau for Education, UNESCO). Thomas, A. (2001) The Future of Development Management, Development Studies Association, Annual Conference, Manchester. Available online at: http://www.devstud. org.uk/publications/papers/conf01/conf01thomas.doc (accessed 10 August 2005). Tomasevski, K. (2004) Manual on Rights-based Education: Global Human Rights Requirements Made Simple (Bangkok, UNESCO). Tomlinson, K. & Benefield, P. (2005) Education and Conflict: Research and Research Possibilities (Slough, National Foundation for Educational Research). UK Government (2000) Eliminating World Poverty: Making Globalisation Work for the Poor (London, HMSO). UNESCO (1999a) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision (Paris, UNESCO). UNESCO (1999b) Disarming History: International Conference on combating Stereotypes and Prejudice in History Textbooks of South-East Europe, Visby, Gotland (Sweden), 23–25 September 1999. UNESCO (2003) Education in a Multilingual World Position Paper (Paris, UNESCO). UNESCO (2004) Capacity-building of teacher training institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa (Paris, UNESCO). Online at: www.dakar.unesco.org/pdf/030918_report_ren_capa_ens.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). UNICEF (2000) State of the World’s Children (New York, UNICEF). Available online at: http:// www.unicef.org/sowc00 (accessed 10 August 2005). See also: http://www.unicef.org/ children_conflict/past.htm (accessed 10 August 2005). UNICEF (2005) Life Skills-based Education programme. Available online at: http://www.unicef.org/lifeskills (accessed 10 August 2005). USAID (2005) Fragile States Strategy (Washington, DC, USAID). Available online at: http://www.usaid.gov/policy/2005_fragile_states_strategy.pdf (accessed 10 August 2005). Wickrema, A. & Colenso, P. (2003) Respect for Diversity in Educational Publication. The Sri Lankan Experience (Washington, DC, World Bank Symposium). Woods Masalski, K. (2001) Examining the Japanese History Textbook Controversies (Bloomington, Indiana University, National Clearinghouse for United States-Japan). Available online at: http://www.indiana.edu/,japan/Digests/textbook.html (accessed 10 August 2005). Woolcock, M. (2004) Getting the Social Relations Right: Toward an Integrated Theology and Theory of Development, in: P. Heslam (Ed.) Globalisation and the Good (Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans Publishing), 41–51. World Bank (1998) The World Bank Experience with Post Conflict Reconstruction (Washington, DC, World Bank). World Bank (2004) The Role of the World Bank in Conflict and Development (Washington, DC, World Bank).

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - This paper is an attempt to map out an emerging, and increasingly important field of studyconcerning the relationship between education and conflict. The field has two main parameters. The first involves the variety of contexts within which education systems are required to operate. Distinctions are drawn between education that is provided within relatively peaceful and stable environments; during times of violent conflict; as part of reconstruction following conflict or political transition; and as part of longer term peace and reconciliation processes. Educational priorities and concerns may be quite different depending on each of these circumstances. The second parameter concerns different levels of action within an education system. These include the political and policy environment, administrative and structural features and various aspects of educational practice. The paper argues that actions through various ‘entry points’ at each of theselevels carry the potential to exacerbate or ameliorate conflict and suggests that a systemic analysis of investments in education systems from a conflict perspective should be a routine part of educational planning.

AB - This paper is an attempt to map out an emerging, and increasingly important field of studyconcerning the relationship between education and conflict. The field has two main parameters. The first involves the variety of contexts within which education systems are required to operate. Distinctions are drawn between education that is provided within relatively peaceful and stable environments; during times of violent conflict; as part of reconstruction following conflict or political transition; and as part of longer term peace and reconciliation processes. Educational priorities and concerns may be quite different depending on each of these circumstances. The second parameter concerns different levels of action within an education system. These include the political and policy environment, administrative and structural features and various aspects of educational practice. The paper argues that actions through various ‘entry points’ at each of theselevels carry the potential to exacerbate or ameliorate conflict and suggests that a systemic analysis of investments in education systems from a conflict perspective should be a routine part of educational planning.

KW - Education For All

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KW - International development

KW - Reconstruction

KW - Reconciliation

KW - Politics of Education

KW - Governance

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