Diversity represents a challenge and an opportunity for education. It is a challenge becausepolicymakers and educators are called to respond to the claims of disadvantaged minoritiesfor whom education represents a key to greater opportunity and parity with other groups insociety. It is an opportunity because a society that learns to live with diversity is likely toachieve faster rates of economic growth and social development—if only by avoiding ethnicconflict. The accommodation of diversity in the educational system is also fully consistentwith (and may even contribute to) the “outcome-based” educational practices thatresearchers agree are needed if societies are to achieve sustainable social and economicdevelopment in our globalized world.Combined, education for diversity has the potential to propel growth and progresswhile reducing and perhaps preventing social conflict. Recent research points the waytoward reaching that potential through changes in curriculum and textbook selection and,most important of all, through more effective policies on the recruitment, training, andretention of teachers.
Bibliographical noteReference text: Bardhan, P. 1997. “Method in the Madness? A Political Economy Analysis of the Ethnic
Conflicts in Less Developed Countries.” World Development 25 (9).
Berdal, M., and D. Malone. 2000. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Brophy, J. 1990. “Teaching Social Studies for Understanding and Higher Order
Applications.” Elementary School Journal 90: 351–417.
Burnside, C., and D. Dollar. 1997. “Aid, Policies and Growth.” World Bank Policy Research
Working Paper 1777.
Bush, K. D., and D. Saltarelli. 2000. The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence:
United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre.
Cochran-Smith, M. 2004. Walking the Road: Race, Diversity, and Social Justice in Teacher
Education. New York and London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
Coletta, N.J., and M.L. Cullen. 2000. Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank.
Council of Europe. 2000. “Education for Democratic Citizenship.”
Department for International Development. 2001. The Causes of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa. Framework Document. London.
———. 2001. Children Out of School. Issues Paper. London.
Duffield, M. 2001. Global Governance and the New Wars. London: Zed.
Dynesson, T. 1992. “What's Hot and What's Not in Effective Citizenship Instruction.” The
Social Studies. September/October, 197–200.
Fountain, Susan. 1999. Peace Education in UNICEF. New York: UNICEF. Available at
http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/files/PeaceEducation.pdf. Accessed May 2005.
Gay, G. 2000. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
Georg Eckert Institute. 1999. Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision. Paris: UNESCO.
Heneveld, W., and H. Craig. 1995. Schools Count: World Bank Project Designs and the Quality of Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa . World Bank Technical Paper 303.
Kincheloe, J., and S. Steinberg. 1999. Changing Multiculturalism. Milton Keynes, UK: Open
Kreimer, A., J. Eriksson, R. Muscat, M. Arnold, and C. Scott. 1998. The World Bank’s Experience with Post-Conflict Reconstruction. World Bank.
Letwin, K. 1993. “Education and Development: The Issues and the Evidence.” Serial 6. DFID, London. Formerly available at http://www2.dfid.gov.uk/.
McCarthy, C. 1991. “Multicultural Approaches to Racial Inequality in the United States.”
Oxford Review of Education 17(3), 301–16.
OECD/INES. 2001. Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
Osborne, K. 1991. Teaching for Democratic Citizenship. Toronto: Our Schools.
Parker, W. C., A. Ninomiya, and J. Cogan. 1999. “Educating World Citizens: Toward
Multinational Curriculum Development.” American Educational Research Journal 36(2).
Patrick, J., and J. Hoge. 1991. “Teaching Government, Civics, and the Law.” In J. Shaver, ed.
Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning.
Pennycuick, D. 1993. School Effectiveness in Developing Countries. Serial 1. London: DFID.
Print, M. 1999. “Civics and Values in the Asia Pacific Region.” Asia Pacific Journal of Education 20(1).
Rosenshine, B., and R. Stevens. 1986. “Teaching Functions.” In M. Whitrock, ed., Handbook of Research on Teaching. New York: Macmillan.
Scheerens, J. 2002. “Improving School Effectiveness.” Fundamentals in Educational Planning 68. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.
Shaver, J., ed. Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning. New York:
Smith, A., and T. Vaux. 2003. Education, Conflict and International Development. London:
Department for International Development (DFID).
Stanley, W. 1991. “Teacher Competence for Social Studies.” In J. Shaver, ed. Handbook of
Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning.
Throsby, C.D., and K. Gannicott. 1990. “The Quality of Education in the South Pacific.” Pacific
Economic Bulletin. June. Formerly available at http://www2.dfid.gov.uk/.
UNESCO. 1999. UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision. Paris.
———. 2002. EFA Global Monitoring Report. Education For All: Is the World on Track? Paris.
http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/index.shtml >> EFA monitoring.
———. 2003. “Textbooks and Learning Materials Respecting Diversity: Components of
Quality Education that Can Foster Peace, Human Rights, Mutual Understanding and
Dialogue—An Overview of UNESCO’s Role in the Revision and Review of
Textbooks and Learning Materials.” Section of Education for Universal Values,
Division for the Promotion of Quality Education, Education Sector, UNESCO, Paris.
Available at http://www1.worldbank.org/education/social_cohesion/doc/unesco%20OVERVI
EW-%20WB%20meeting-March%2003.pdf. Accessed May 2005.
World Education Forum, Dakar, April 26–28, 2000. Final Report. Paris: UNESCO.
- social cohesion
- world bank